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book critique sample Book Review Sample Essay. 21 September 2006. Book Review for Wuthering High. Essay War! Having to go to a boarding school and wear a uniform would be traumatic for most teenagers. Add a ban on cell phones and music, and it is like the world is ending. Oddly enough, for Miranda Tate, these things become the education right child, least of her worries in the 257 page, young adult fiction novel Wuthering High. Essay! This novel was written by Cara Lockwood and published by MTV Books. Wuthering High is a modern novel that will be examined using a summary of its mystical plot , an online submissions creative analysis of the dynamic character Miranda, and a discussion of the book#8217;s theme about punishments . The summary of this book#8217;s plot combines the completely modern with mystical elements that make it truly entertaining.
The story opens with Miranda trying to essay drug war downplay the major discretions, including totaling her dad#8217;s new BMW convertible, that cause her parents to send her to Bard Academy, a boarding school for juvenile delinquents. Dissertation Headings! For a teenage girl who calls Chicago home, Bard Academy#8217;s location on an island off the coast of Maine seems like halfway across the world. As soon as Miranda arrives on the island, she knows something just isn#8217;t right about the school. The bus driver drives like a maniac and asks her if she has any drugs. The athletic coach drinks out of a flask.
There are even security personnel called #8220;Guardians#8221; who are allowed to get physical with students. Things get even stranger when Miranda learns that there was a student that disappeared from war, Bard several years before, and Miranda becomes positive that this girl#8217;s ghost is haunting her. Over the course of the story, Miranda discovers that there are characters from classic novels, including Heathcliff from the novel Wuthering Heights , running loose around the school. Dissertation! The plot comes to essay on mexico drug its climax when Miranda and her friends uncover the secret of the school. The staff members are all ghosts that died before their time on earth was supposed to be finished. For that, they have been sentenced to serve at writer Bard for an indeterminate amount of time. The majority of the staff is composed of dead authors, and, unfortunately, one of the dead authors is Emily Bront, who has decided to free fictional characters into on mexico war, the real world, which could cause both the fictional world and the real world to collapse. If that weren#8217;t enough, Miranda also learns that she is the s world 2nd ed, descendant of Kate Shaw, an escaped character from Wuthering Heights . Emily is stopped when she enters Wuthering Heights and the book is burned. The main character in the book, Miranda, proves herself to be very dynamic . One of the most obvious changes in her is that her perspective on school, and Bard in particular, has shifted dramatically.
At the essay drug, beginning of the book, Miranda readily admits that she isn#8217;t very focused on school and claims that life is about balance, so she is justified in focusing more on clothes and friends to the point that her grades slip. She is argument for the of god completely distraught when she learns that she has to go without her cell phone and essay drug war, her hair dryer; she even tries to run away from the school. By the end of the story, her perspective has completely changed. She is much happier with attending Bard and the canadian essays, realizes that the absence of distractions truly does help her focus on studying. Instead of considering what to war wear to the next party, she is thinking about the pigman scholarships and on mexico drug war, getting into a good college. On a deeper level, Miranda is dynamic because she has become more self-aware. She is education of every unable to on mexico make the connection between the lack of attention from her parents, who are too concerned with Botox injections and a mid-life crisis, and her desire to act out and get herself in trouble. At Bard, Miranda has to attend counseling sessions. During her first session, Ms. W, her dorm mother, teacher, and counselor, asks Miranda about the pigman themes her family.
Because her parents are so focused on war, themselves, Miranda is the essay, one that generally takes care of on mexico drug herself and her little sister. Ms. W points out the creative, fact that Miranda#8217;s tendency to essay on mexico get in trouble may be her way of trying to prove to her parents that she is still a kid. Due to this realization, Miranda begins to accept her parents for who they are and existence of god essay, accept the fact that it really isn#8217;t her fault that they act the on mexico drug war, way they do. Although it is not directly stated, it appears that by the end of the novel, Miranda#8217;s impulse to act out the pigman themes essay has lessened from what it was at the beginning of the story. Although there are many themes that can be drawn from Wuthering High , one of the primary themes is that punishments can turn into positive experiences if they are approached with an open mind. Miranda may not have started out her experience at Bard with an essay open mind, but with the help of her new friends and her teachers, she discovers a range of positives about attending a school for delinquents that is online writing run by ghosts. Even though Miranda loves her best friends from home, Liz and Cass, she accepts the fact that it is probably good that she can#8217;t spend a lot of time with them anymore because they are a bad influence and increase her chances of getting in trouble. Also, as was previously mentioned, Miranda realizes that being removed from the distractions of home, including her cell phone and parties, allows her to concentrate on schoolwork and that she doesn#8217;t really mind doing her schoolwork. Essay War! She seems to have better direction in her life and she has goals beyond dressing well and the pigman, having a boyfriend. Even her choice in boyfriends improves during her time at Bard.
Prior to being sent there, she briefly dated a guy that had a bad reputation; on a date, he spiked her drink with alcohol. At Bard, she becomes closer to a guy that she knew from her old school, and he genuinely cares about her. Instead of essay on mexico war having a date that involves alcohol, they end up having a date where they enjoy eating Pop-Tarts, which are contraband at Bard. All in all, Miranda discovers that her punishment isn#8217;t really that bad after all, and she seems to dissertation headings be happy that she was sent away to Bard. In brief, the book Wuthering High is a story that has a mystical plot , a dynamic character Miranda, and a theme about punishments . War! For a world where everyone seems to be concerned with who has the biggest and the best of everything, this story demonstrates that sometimes, less really is more. Cell phones do not have to study become an extension of one#8217;s arm. Computers may be helpful, but sometimes a pen and paper can work just as well.
All in all, people need to essay learn to place less value on argument for the of god essay, material things and place more value on essay drug, the things that are priceless: friends, family, and a good education.
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Sample Essay For National Honors Society Essays and Research Papers. ?Victoria Vasquez National Honors Society Essay To me, National . Honors Society’s four pillars are essential elements to being a member of essay war, this society . Scholarship and leadership are the apa 6 dissertation headings two pillars that I feel complement each other because one should be a leader in the community and school without forgetting to essay on mexico be a good student and scholar. Service and character go well together because in the pigman, order to essay on mexico drug provide services to students or members of the community, it is the canadian writer essays necessary to have a good character. 927 Words | 2 Pages. Honor Society and National Junior Honor. National Junior Honor Society Essay National Junior Honor . Essay On Mexico War. Society is a great opportunity for me; something that I am really excited to have. I would love to be involved in NJHS and share my ideas and listen to apa 6 others ideas about fundraisers and war, collecting donations.
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? Being a member of National Honor Society is a highly prestigious honor and essay on mexico, made me standout from my . fellow peers. My hard work throughout my three years of high school pays off when I was inducted to NHS. National Honor Society recognized all the hard work you did but not only academics but also helped me in areas such as scholarship, leadership, service and child essay, character. To be selected and on mexico drug, be a part of national honor society is not an kodak honor but a privilege. Essay Drug War. Scholarship in high school for education is basic right child colleges. College , Grade , High school 593 Words | 2 Pages.
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Developed country , Education , Female 823 Words | 3 Pages. Sample Portfolio Essay #1 My time at Isothermal has greatly affected my life in many ways. Essay On Mexico Drug War. Thanks to dissertation chapter my time spent at on mexico war . Isothermal, I have decided that upon completion of my education, I hope to be able to work as a Spanish educator at K-12 and college level and as a Spanish-English translator. I have decided on writer s world, these careers because of my love for essay on mexico the Spanish language and the fact that Spanish educators and translators are in high demand. I also believe that these are career choices with which I. Academic degree , Competence , Four stages of competence 2563 Words | 7 Pages. National Honor Society values Scholarship, Character, Leadership, and Community Service. Compose an . essay in which you explain why you should be inducted into your school's National Honor Society . How do you demonstrate and incorporate these values into your life?
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American Sign Language , Family , High school 1516 Words | 4 Pages. Hester as far stronger than Dimmesdale. While Hawthorne describes her as having a “woman’s strength,” Reynolds suggests that Hester is as strong as any of . the men in her society . Essay. In DeSalvo’s article, Hawthorne is online creative writing characterized as rendering Hester not as a symbol of strength under duress, but rather as a cog in essay drug, the wheel of a society that punishes her for her own good, in the eyes of God. “Hester accepts her womanly role, which according to Hawthorne, is essential if a woman is to be saved (By God)”. Gender , Gender role , Hester Prynne 896 Words | 3 Pages. The melting pot ideology dictates assimilating into submissions a common culture and language. Essay On Mexico. Views on the canadian writer s world 2nd ed, this issue are very polarized, which make a compromise seem hard . to on mexico war accomplish. Two articles that pertain to this topic are American Multilingualism: A National Tragedy, by kodak questions Franklin Raff published on WND.com, and English Only Laws Divide and Demean, by on mexico drug war Warren J. Blumenfeld published in The Huffington Post. Both articles are direct contradictions of each other with Raff saying languages other than English. English language , European Union , German language 2184 Words | 8 Pages. ?Prompt: ‘Absolute Power Corrupts Absolutely’ – (Lord John E.E.D.
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1. Creative. Definition of. Conspicuous consumption , Consumer , Consumer protection 1425 Words | 5 Pages. Justin Doll GEOL C105 October 24, 2014 National Park Essay Yosemite National Park first became a . national park in 1890 with the help of drug, Yosemite’s most famous advocate, John Muir. Education Is Basic Of Every Child Essay. (APN Media, LLC, 2013) The park boasts some of the essay drug most easily recognizable geologic features in apa 6 chapter, the world. Many of the most recognizable features are glacier cut granite walls and domes, and on mexico war, the waterfalls that fall off of them. The views of and from features like El Capitan, Half Dome, Glacier Point, Clouds Rest. El Capitan , Geology , Half Dome 754 Words | 2 Pages. ?Dead poets society O captain, my captain (Walt Whitman) O Captain my Captain! our . fearful trip is done; The ship has weather’d every rack, the prize we sought is submissions creative writing won; The port is drug near, the study bells I hear, the people all exulting, While follow eyes the steady keel, the vessel grim and daring: But O heart! heart! heart! O the bleeding drops of red, Where on the deck my Captain lies, Fallen cold and dead.
O Captain! my Captain! rise up and. Dead Poets Society , Poetry , Suicide 1473 Words | 6 Pages. Essay on on mexico drug, the role of kodak case questions, education in society. ? Essay on the role of education in essay on mexico war, society Education, has a great social importance specially in the modern, complex . industrialised societies . Philosophers of all periods, beginning with ancient stages, devoted to it a great deal of attention. Accordingly, various theories regarding its nature and objective have come into being. Let us now examine some of the significant functions of education.
1. To complete the socialization process. The Pigman. The main social objective of education is to complete the. Education , High school , Learning 1004 Words | 3 Pages.
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coming of age essay THE COMING ANARCHY. by Robert D. Kaplan. How scarcity, crime, overpopulation, tribalism, and disease are rapidly destroying the social fabric of our planet. The Atlantic Monthly, February 1994. The Minister's eyes were like egg yolks, an aftereffect of some of the many illnesses, malaria especially, endemic in his country. There was also an irrefutable sadness in essay on mexico drug his eyes. He spoke in a slow and creaking voice, the voice of hope about to kodak study questions, expire. Flame trees, coconut palms, and a ballpoint-blue Atlantic composed the background. None of it seemed beautiful, though. In forty-five years I have never seen things so bad.
We did not manage ourselves well after the British departed. But what we have now is something worse--the revenge of the poor, of the social failures, of the essay on mexico drug war people least able to bring up children in design for the existence essay a modern society. Then he referred to on mexico, the recent coup in the West African country Sierra Leone. The boys who took power in Sierra Leone come from houses like this. The Minister jabbed his finger at a corrugated metal shack teeming with children. In three months these boys confiscated all the official Mercedes, Volvos, and online creative BMWs and willfully wrecked them on essay drug war, the road. Is Basic Right Of Every Child! The Minister mentioned one of the coup's leaders, Solomon Anthony Joseph Musa, who shot the people who had paid for essay drug, his schooling, in order to erase the humiliation and mitigate the power his middle-class sponsors held over him. Tyranny is nothing new in Sierra Leone or in the rest of West Africa. But it is now part and parcel of an increasing lawlessness that is far more significant than any coup, rebel incursion, or episodic experiment in democracy. Crime was what my friend--a top-ranking African official whose life would be threatened were I to identify him more precisely--really wanted to talk about.
Crime is what makes West Africa a natural point of departure for my report on what the political character of our planet is is basic right of every child likely to be in drug the twenty-first century. The cities of apa 6 dissertation chapter, West Africa at night are some of the unsafest places in the world. Streets are unlit; the police often lack gasoline for their vehicles; armed burglars, carjackers, and essay muggers proliferate. The government in apa 6 dissertation chapter headings Sierra Leone has no writ after dark, says a foreign resident, shrugging. When I was in the capital, Freetown, last September, eight men armed with AK-47s broke into the house of an American man.
They tied him up and stole everything of value. Forget Miami: direct flights between the United States and the Murtala Muhammed Airport, in neighboring Nigeria's largest city, Lagos, have been suspended by order of the U.S. Secretary of Transportation because of ineffective security at the terminal and its environs. A State Department report cited the airport for extortion by law-enforcement and immigration officials. This is one of the few times that the essay U.S. government has embargoed a foreign airport for reasons that are linked purely to crime. Design For The Existence! In Abidjan, effectively the capital of the essay on mexico war Cote d'Ivoire, or Ivory Coast, restaurants have stick- and gun-wielding guards who walk you the kodak fifteen feet or so between your car and the entrance, giving you an eerie taste of what American cities might be like in the future. An Italian ambassador was killed by gunfire when robbers invaded an essay on mexico Abidjan restaurant. The family of the Nigerian ambassador was tied up and robbed at gunpoint in the ambassador's residence. After university students in the Ivory Coast caught bandits who had been plaguing their dorms, they executed them by hanging tires around their necks and chapter setting the tires on fire. In one instance Ivorian policemen stood by and watched the necklacings, afraid to intervene. Each time I went to the Abidjan bus terminal, groups of young men with restless, scanning eyes surrounded my taxi, putting their hands all over the windows, demanding tips for carrying my luggage even though I had only a rucksack.
In cities in six West African countries I saw similar young men everywhere--hordes of them. They were like loose molecules in a very unstable social fluid, a fluid that was clearly on the verge of igniting. You see, my friend the Minister told me, in drug war the villages of Africa it is perfectly natural to feed at any table and argument existence of god essay lodge in essay on mexico any hut. But in the cities this communal existence no longer holds. You must pay for lodging and be invited for food.
When young men find out that their relations cannot put them up, they become lost. They join other migrants and slip gradually into the criminal process. In the design existence of god essay poor quarters of Arab North Africa, he continued, there is much less crime, because Islam provides a social anchor: of education and indoctrination. Here in West Africa we have a lot of superficial Islam and superficial Christianity. Western religion is undermined by essay on mexico drug animist beliefs not suitable to a moral society, because they are based on design argument for the existence of god essay, irrational spirit power. Here spirits are used to essay on mexico drug, wreak vengeance by one person against another, or one group against another. Many of the atrocities in the Liberian civil war have been tied to belief in juju spirits, and the BBC has reported, in its magazine Focus on Africa, that in the civil fighting in adjacent Sierra Leone, rebels were said to have a young woman with them who would go to the front naked, always walking backwards and looking in a mirror to see where she was going.
This made her invisible, so that she could cross to the army's positions and there bury charms . . . to improve the rebels' chances of success. Finally my friend the Minister mentioned polygamy. Education Right! Designed for a pastoral way of life, polygamy continues to thrive in sub-Saharan Africa even though it is increasingly uncommon in Arab North Africa. Most youths I met on the road in essay on mexico West Africa told me that they were from extended families, with a mother in one place and a father in another. Themes! Translated to an urban environment, loose family structures are largely responsible for essay drug war, the world's highest birth rates and the explosion of the HIV virus on the canadian writer essays, the continent. Like the communalism and animism, they provide a weak shield against the corrosive social effects of life in essay drug cities.
In those cities African culture is being redefined while desertification and deforestation--also tied to overpopulation--drive more and more African peasants out of the countryside. West Africa is becoming the the canadian essays symbol of worldwide demographic, environmental, and on mexico drug societal stress, in which criminal anarchy emerges as the real strategic danger. Dissertation Headings! Disease, overpopulation, unprovoked crime, scarcity of resources, refugee migrations, the increasing erosion of nation-states and international borders, and the empowerment of private armies, security firms, and essay war international drug cartels are now most tellingly demonstrated through a West African prism. West Africa provides an writer essays 2nd ed appropriate introduction to essay on mexico war, the issues, often extremely unpleasant to discuss, that will soon confront our civilization. To remap the political earth the way it will be a few decades hence--as I intend to do in this article--I find I must begin with West Africa. There is no other place on the planet where political maps are so deceptive--where, in fact, they tell such lies--as in essay West Africa. Start with Sierra Leone. Essay! According to the map, it is a nation-state of defined borders, with a government in control of its territory. Is Basic Of Every Child! In truth the essay drug war Sierra Leonian government, run by a twenty-seven-year-old army captain, Valentine Strasser, controls Freetown by day and by day also controls part of the rural interior.
In the government's territory the national army is an unruly rabble threatening drivers and passengers at most checkpoints. Essays! In the drug other part of the country units of two separate armies from the war in Liberia have taken up residence, as has an army of design argument of god, Sierra Leonian rebels. The government force fighting the rebels is full of renegade commanders who have aligned themselves with disaffected village chiefs. On Mexico Drug War! A pre-modern formlessness governs the battlefield, evoking the wars in medieval Europe prior to apa 6 chapter, the 1648 Peace of Westphalia, which ushered in the era of organized nation-states. As a consequence, roughly 400,000 Sierra Leonians are internally displaced, 280,000 more have fled to neighboring Guinea, and another 100,000 have fled to drug, Liberia, even as 400,000 Liberians have fled to Sierra Leone. The third largest city in the pigman themes essay Sierra Leone, Gondama, is a displaced-persons camp. With an additional 600,000 Liberians in Guinea and on mexico drug war 250,000 in the Ivory Coast, the borders dividing these four countries have become largely meaningless. Even in quiet zones none of the online creative writing governments except the Ivory Coast's maintains the schools, bridges, roads, and war police forces in a manner necessary for functional sovereignty. The Koranko ethnic group in education is basic essay northeastern Sierra Leone does all its trading in Guinea. Sierra Leonian diamonds are more likely to be sold in essay drug war Liberia than in Freetown. In the education is basic of every child eastern provinces of Sierra Leone you can buy Liberian beer but not the local brand.
In Sierra Leone, as in Guinea, as in the Ivory Coast, as in Ghana, most of the primary rain forest and the secondary bush is being destroyed at an alarming rate. I saw convoys of trucks bearing majestic hardwood trunks to coastal ports. Essay! When Sierra Leone achieved its independence, in 1961, as much as 60 percent of the country was primary rain forest. Now six percent is. In the Ivory Coast the creative writing proportion has fallen from 38 percent to eight percent. The deforestation has led to soil erosion, which has led to more flooding and on mexico more mosquitoes. Virtually everyone in the West African interior has some form of malaria. Sierra Leone is a microcosm of what is occurring, albeit in dissertation chapter a more tempered and gradual manner, throughout West Africa and essay on mexico drug much of the underdeveloped world: the withering away of central governments, the chapter headings rise of tribal and regional domains, the unchecked spread of disease, and the growing pervasiveness of war. On Mexico Drug! West Africa is reverting to the Africa of the Victorian atlas. Education Of Every Child! It consists now of a series of coastal trading posts, such as Freetown and Conakry, and essay an interior that, owing to violence, volatility, and disease, is again becoming, as Graham Greene once observed, blank and unexplored. However, whereas Greene's vision implies a certain romance, as in the somnolent and the canadian charmingly seedy Freetown of his celebrated novel The Heart of the Matter, it is Thomas Malthus, the philosopher of demographic doomsday, who is now the prophet of West Africa's future.
And West Africa's future, eventually, will also be that of most of the rest of the essay world. Consider Chicago. I refer not to Chicago, Illinois, but to a slum district of Abidjan, which the young toughs in the area have named after the American city. (Washington is another poor section of Abidjan.) Although Sierra Leone is widely regarded as beyond salvage, the Ivory Coast has been considered an online creative writing African success story, and Abidjan has been called the Paris of West Africa. Success, however, was built on war, two artificial factors: the high price of cocoa, of which the Ivory Coast is the world's leading producer, and the talents of a French expatriate community, whose members have helped run the education of every essay government and essay the private sector. The expanding cocoa economy made the Ivory Coast a magnet for migrant workers from all over West Africa: between a third and a half of the country's population is the pigman themes now non-Ivorian, and the figure could be as high as 75 percent in Abidjan. During the 1980s cocoa prices fell and essay drug war the French began to leave. The skyscrapers of the Paris of West Africa are a facade. Perhaps 15 percent of Abidjan's population of three million people live in shantytowns like Chicago and online Washington, and the vast majority live in places that are not much better. Not all of these places appear on any of the readily available maps.
This is another indication of essay on mexico drug war, how political maps are the products of tired conventional wisdom and, in the Ivory Coast's case, of an elite that will ultimately be forced to submissions creative writing, relinquish power. Chicago, like more and more of Abidjan, is a slum in the bush: a checkerwork of corrugated zinc roofs and walls made of cardboard and essay black plastic wrap. It is online located in essay war a gully teeming with coconut palms and oil palms, and is ravaged by flooding. Kodak Case Study! Few residents have easy access to essay war, electricity, a sewage system, or a clean water supply. The crumbly red laterite earth crawls with foot-long lizards both inside and outside the shacks. Apa 6 Dissertation Chapter! Children defecate in a stream filled with garbage and pigs, droning with malarial mosquitoes. In this stream women do the washing.
Young unemployed men spend their time drinking beer, palm wine, and gin while gambling on pinball games constructed out of essay war, rotting wood and rusty nails. These are the same youths who rob houses in more prosperous Ivorian neighborhoods at night. One man I met, Damba Tesele, came to themes essay, Chicago from Burkina Faso in on mexico drug war 1963. A cook by dissertation profession, he has four wives and thirty-two children, not one of whom has made it to high school. He has seen his shanty community destroyed by municipal authorities seven times since coming to the area. War! Each time he and his neighbors rebuild.
Chicago is the latest incarnation. Fifty-five percent of the design argument for the existence of god Ivory Coast's population is urban, and the proportion is expected to reach 62 percent by 2000. The yearly net population growth is essay on mexico 3.6 percent. Online! This means that the on mexico drug war Ivory Coast's 13.5 million people will become 39 million by 2025, when much of the population will consist of urbanized peasants like those of Chicago. But don't count on the Ivory Coast's still existing then. Chicago, which is more indicative of Africa's and the Third World's demographic present--and even more of the future--than any idyllic junglescape of women balancing earthen jugs on their heads, illustrates why the Ivory Coast, once a model of Third World success, is becoming a case study in Third World catastrophe. President Felix Houphouet-Boigny, who died last December at kodak, the age of about ninety, left behind a weak cluster of war, political parties and a leaden bureaucracy that discourages foreign investment. Because the military is small and the non-Ivorian population large, there is neither an obvious force to online writing, maintain order nor a sense of nationhood that would lessen the need for essay on mexico, such enforcement. The economy has been shrinking since the mid-1980s. Though the French are working assiduously to themes essay, preserve stability, the Ivory Coast faces a possibility worse than a coup: an anarchic implosion of criminal violence--an urbanized version of what has already happened in Somalia.
Or it may become an war African Yugoslavia, but one without mini-states to replace the whole. Because the demographic reality of West Africa is a countryside draining into dense slums by education is basic essay the coast, ultimately the region's rulers will come to on mexico war, reflect the education right child values of essay on mexico drug war, these shanty-towns. There are signs of this already in Sierra Leone--and in Togo, where the dictator Etienne Eyadema, in power since 1967, was nearly toppled in 1991, not by democrats but by design argument thousands of youths whom the London-based magazine West Africa described as Soweto-like stone-throwing adolescents. Their behavior may herald a regime more brutal than Eyadema's repressive one. The fragility of essay drug war, these West African countries impressed itself on me when I took a series of argument for the existence of god essay, bush taxis along the Gulf of Guinea, from the essay drug Togolese capital of Lome, across Ghana, to Abidjan. The 400-mile journey required two full days of driving, because of education is basic, stops at two border crossings and an additional eleven customs stations, at each of which my fellow passengers had their bags searched.
I had to change money twice and repeatedly fill in currency-declaration forms. On Mexico! I had to bribe a Togolese immigration official with the equivalent of eighteen dollars before he would agree to put an argument exit stamp on my passport. Drug War! Nevertheless, smuggling across these borders is rampant. Writing! The London Observer has reported that in on mexico drug 1992 the equivalent of $856 million left West Africa for Europe in the form of hot cash assumed to be laundered drug money. International cartels have discovered the utility of weak, financially strapped West African regimes. The more fictitious the actual sovereignty, the more severe border authorities seem to be in kodak case trying to prove otherwise. Getting visas for these states can be as hard as crossing their borders. On Mexico! The Washington embassies of Sierra Leone and Guinea--the two poorest nations on earth, according to a 1993 United Nations report on human development--asked for letters from themes essay, my bank (in lieu of prepaid round-trip tickets) and also personal references, in order to prove that I had sufficient means to sustain myself during my visits. Essay On Mexico War! I was reminded of my visa and currency hassles while traveling to the communist states of writer s world, Eastern Europe, particularly East Germany and Czechoslovakia, before those states collapsed.
Ali A. Mazrui, the director of the Institute of essay war, Global Cultural Studies at the State University of New York at Binghamton, predicts that West Africa--indeed, the whole continent--is on the verge of large-scale border upheaval. Mazrui writes, In the 21st century France will be withdrawing from West Africa as she gets increasingly involved in the affairs [of Europe]. France's West African sphere of influence will be filled by apa 6 dissertation headings Nigeria--a more natural hegemonic power. . . . It will be under those circumstances that Nigeria's own boundaries are likely to expand to incorporate the Republic of Niger (the Hausa link), the Republic of Benin (the Yoruba link) and conceivably Cameroon. The future could be more tumultuous, and bloodier, than Mazrui dares to say. France will withdraw from former colonies like Benin, Togo, Niger, and the Ivory Coast, where it has been propping up local currencies. Essay On Mexico! It will do so not only because its attention will be diverted to kodak, new challenges in Europe and Russia but also because younger French officials lack the older generation's emotional ties to the ex-colonies. However, even as Nigeria attempts to expand, it, too, is likely to split into several pieces. The State Department's Bureau of on mexico, Intelligence and Research recently made the essays following points in on mexico war an analysis of Nigeria: Prospects for is basic of every child essay, a transition to civilian rule and democratization are slim. . . Drug! . The repressive apparatus of the state security service . . . will be difficult for argument for the existence of god, any future civilian government to control. . Essay Drug! . . The country is becoming increasingly ungovernable. The Pigman Essay! . . . Essay On Mexico! Ethnic and apa 6 headings regional splits are deepening, a situation made worse by an increase in the number of states from 19 to 30 and a doubling in the number of local governing authorities; religious cleavages are more serious; Muslim fundamentalism and evangelical Christian militancy are on the rise; and northern Muslim anxiety over southern [Christian] control of the economy is intense . . . the will to keep Nigeria together is now very weak. Given that oil-rich Nigeria is a bellwether for the region--its population of roughly 90 million equals the populations of all the other West African states combined--it is apparent that Africa faces cataclysms that could make the Ethiopian and Somalian famines pale in comparison. Drug! This is especially so because Nigeria's population, including that of its largest city, Lagos, whose crime, pollution, and overcrowding make it the cliche par excellence of Third World urban dysfunction, is set to double during the themes essay next twenty-five years, while the country continues to deplete its natural resources.
Part of West Africa's quandary is that although its population belts are horizontal, with habitation densities increasing as one travels south away from the Sahara and toward the drug war tropical abundance of the Atlantic littoral, the the canadian borders erected by European colonialists are vertical, and therefore at cross-purposes with demography and topography. Satellite photos depict the essay on mexico war same reality I experienced in the bush taxi: the Lome-Abidjan coastal corridor--indeed, the entire stretch of coast from Abidjan eastward to Lagos--is one burgeoning megalopolis that by the canadian writer s world any rational economic and geographical standard should constitute a single sovereignty, rather than the five (the Ivory Coast, Ghana, Togo, Benin, and drug Nigeria) into which it is currently divided. As many internal African borders begin to crumble, a more impenetrable boundary is being erected that threatens to isolate the continent as a whole: the wall of disease. Merely to visit West Africa in some degree of safety, I spent about $500 for a hepatitis B vaccination series and other disease prophylaxis. Africa may today be more dangerous in the canadian essays this regard than it was in 1862, before antibiotics, when the essay on mexico drug explorer Sir Richard Francis Burton described the health situation on writer s world 2nd ed, the continent as deadly, a Golgotha, a Jehannum. Of the approximately 12 million people worldwide whose blood is HIV-positive, 8 million are in Africa. Essay On Mexico! In the capital of the Ivory Coast, whose modern road system only helps to spread the disease, 10 percent of the creative population is HIV-positive. And war and refugee movements help the virus break through to more-remote areas of Africa. Alan Greenberg, M.D., a representative of the Centers for Disease Control in Abidjan, explains that in Africa the HIV virus and tuberculosis are now fast-forwarding each other.
Of the approximately 4,000 newly diagnosed tuberculosis patients in Abidjan, 45 percent were also found to be HIV-positive. As African birth rates soar and slums proliferate, some experts worry that viral mutations and hybridizations might, just conceivably, result in a form of the AIDS virus that is easier to catch than the present strain. It is essay war malaria that is most responsible for the pigman essay, the disease wall that threatens to drug, separate Africa and other parts of the the pigman Third World from more-developed regions of the planet in the twenty-first century. Carried by mosquitoes, malaria, unlike AIDS, is easy to catch. Most people in sub-Saharan Africa have recurring bouts of the essay on mexico disease throughout their entire lives, and it is mutating into increasingly deadly forms. The great gift of Malaria is utter apathy, wrote Sir Richard Burton, accurately portraying the situation in much of the Third World today. Visitors to malaria-afflicted parts of the planet are protected by existence essay a new drug, mefloquine, a side effect of which is vivid, even violent, dreams. But a strain of cerebral malaria resistant to mefloquine is now on the offensive. Consequently, defending oneself against malaria in essay war Africa is becoming more and more like defending oneself against violent crime. You engage in behavior modification: not going out at dusk, wearing mosquito repellent all the time.
And the cities keep growing. I got a general sense of the future while driving from the education of every airport to downtown Conakry, the capital of Guinea. The forty-five-minute journey in heavy traffic was through one never-ending shantytown: a nightmarish Dickensian spectacle to which Dickens himself would never have given credence. On Mexico War! The corrugated metal shacks and scabrous walls were coated with black slime. Stores were built out of rusted shipping containers, junked cars, and jumbles of wire mesh. The streets were one long puddle of floating garbage. Mosquitoes and flies were everywhere. Is Basic! Children, many of whom had protruding bellies, seemed as numerous as ants. When the tide went out, dead rats and essay the skeletons of cars were exposed on the mucky beach. In twenty-eight years Guinea's population will double if growth goes on design argument existence, at current rates. Hardwood logging continues at a madcap speed, and people flee the Guinean countryside for Conakry.
It seemed to me that here, as elsewhere in Africa and the Third World, man is challenging nature far beyond its limits, and nature is essay on mexico drug war now beginning to education is basic of every child, take its revenge. Africa may be as relevant to the future character of world politics as the Balkans were a hundred years ago, prior to the two Balkan wars and the First World War. Then the threat was the collapse of empires and the birth of nations based solely on tribe. Now the essay drug threat is more elemental: nature unchecked. Africa's immediate future could be very bad. The coming upheaval, in which foreign embassies are shut down, states collapse, and contact with the outside world takes place through dangerous, disease-ridden coastal trading posts, will loom large in the century we are entering. Education Of Every Child! (Nine of twenty-one U.S. foreign-aid missions to essay on mexico war, be closed over the next three years are in Africa--a prologue to a consolidation of design argument existence of god, U.S. embassies themselves.) Precisely because much of Africa is set to go over on mexico drug, the edge at a time when the Cold War has ended, when environmental and demographic stress in essay other parts of the globe is becoming critical, and when the post-First World War system of nation-states--not just in the Balkans but perhaps also in the Middle East--is about to be toppled, Africa suggests what war, borders, and ethnic politics will be like a few decades hence.
To understand the events of the on mexico drug war next fifty years, then, one must understand environmental scarcity, cultural and racial clash, geographic destiny, and the transformation of war. The order in which I have named these is apa 6 chapter headings not accidental. Each concept except the first relies partly on on mexico war, the one or ones before it, meaning that the study last two--new approaches to mapmaking and to warfare--are the most important. They are also the least understood. I will now look at each idea, drawing upon the work of specialists and also my own travel experiences in various parts of the globe besides Africa, in order to fill in the blanks of essay drug war, a new political atlas. The Environment as a Hostile Power. For a while the media will continue to ascribe riots and writer s world essays 2nd ed other violent upheavals abroad mainly to ethnic and religious conflict. But as these conflicts multiply, it will become apparent that something else is afoot, making more and more places like Nigeria, India, and Brazil ungovernable. Mention the environment or diminishing natural resources in foreign-policy circles and you meet a brick wall of skepticism or boredom.
To conservatives especially, the very terms seem flaky. Public-policy foundations have contributed to drug war, the lack of interest, by education is basic of every essay funding narrowly focused environmental studies replete with technical jargon which foreign-affairs experts just let pile up on their desks. It is on mexico drug war time to understand the environment for online submissions creative, what it is: the national-security issue of the early twenty-first century. The political and strategic impact of surging populations, spreading disease, deforestation and soil erosion, water depletion, air pollution, and, possibly, rising sea levels in critical, overcrowded regions like the Nile Delta and Bangladesh--developments that will prompt mass migrations and, in turn, incite group conflicts--will be the core foreign-policy challenge from which most others will ultimately emanate, arousing the war public and design for the existence of god uniting assorted interests left over from the drug Cold War. In the kodak questions twenty-first century water will be in dangerously short supply in such diverse locales as Saudi Arabia, Central Asia, and on mexico drug war the southwestern United States. A war could erupt between Egypt and study Ethiopia over on mexico war, Nile River water. Even in design for the of god essay Europe tensions have arisen between Hungary and Slovakia over the damming of the on mexico drug war Danube, a classic case of how environmental disputes fuse with ethnic and historical ones. The political scientist and erstwhile Clinton adviser Michael Mandelbaum has said, We have a foreign policy today in the shape of a doughnut--lots of peripheral interests but nothing at the center. The environment, I will argue, is part of a terrifying array of problems that will define a new threat to our security, filling the hole in Mandelbaum's doughnut and allowing a post- Cold War foreign policy to right of every child essay, emerge inexorably by drug war need rather than by design. Our Cold War foreign policy truly began with George F. Kennan's famous article, signed X, published in Foreign Affairs in July of 1947, in which Kennan argued for a firm and submissions creative vigilant containment of drug war, a Soviet Union that was imperially, rather than ideologically, motivated.
It may be that our post-Cold War foreign policy will one day be seen to the pigman essay, have had its beginnings in essay an even bolder and study questions more detailed piece of essay, written analysis: one that appeared in the journal International Security. The article, published in the fall of 1991 by the pigman themes Thomas Fraser Homer-Dixon, who is the head of the Peace and Conflict Studies Program at the University of Toronto, was titled On the on mexico Threshold: Environmental Changes as Causes of Acute Conflict. Homer-Dixon has, more successfully than other analysts, integrated two hitherto separate fields--military-conflict studies and the study of the online submissions physical environment. In Homer-Dixon's view, future wars and civil violence will often arise from scarcities of resources such as water, cropland, forests, and fish. Just as there will be environmentally driven wars and on mexico war refugee flows, there will be environmentally induced praetorian regimes--or, as he puts it, hard regimes. Countries with the highest probability of acquiring hard regimes, according to Homer-Dixon, are those that are threatened by questions a declining resource base yet also have a history of state [read 'military'] strength.
Candidates include Indonesia, Brazil, and, of course, Nigeria. Though each of these nations has exhibited democratizing tendencies of late, Homer-Dixon argues that such tendencies are likely to be superficial epiphenomena having nothing to do with long-term processes that include soaring populations and shrinking raw materials. Democracy is essay on mexico war problematic; scarcity is more certain. Indeed, the Saddam Husseins of the future will have more, not fewer, opportunities. Online Writing! In addition to engendering tribal strife, scarcer resources will place a great strain on many peoples who never had much of a democratic or institutional tradition to begin with. Over the next fifty years the earth's population will soar from 5.5 billion to more than nine billion. Drug! Though optimists have hopes for new resource technologies and free-market development in the global village, they fail to note that, as the National Academy of the pigman essay, Sciences has pointed out, 95 percent of the population increase will be in the poorest regions of the world, where governments now--just look at Africa--show little ability to function, let alone to implement even marginal improvements. Essay! Homer-Dixon writes, ominously, Neo-Malthusians may underestimate human adaptability in s world today's environmental-social system, but as time passes their analysis may become ever more compelling. While a minority of the human population will be, as Francis Fukuyama would put it, sufficiently sheltered so as to drug war, enter a post-historical realm, living in cities and suburbs in which the environment has been mastered and ethnic animosities have been quelled by design for the essay bourgeois prosperity, an increasingly large number of people will be stuck in history, living in shantytowns where attempts to essay drug war, rise above poverty, cultural dysfunction, and ethnic strife will be doomed by a lack of water to drink, soil to till, and space to survive in. In the developing world environmental stress will present people with a choice that is increasingly among totalitarianism (as in Iraq), fascist-tending mini-states (as in kodak questions Serb-held Bosnia), and road-warrior cultures (as in Somalia). Homer-Dixon concludes that as environmental degradation proceeds, the size of the potential social disruption will increase.
Tad Homer-Dixon is an essay on mexico drug war unlikely Jeremiah. Today a boyish thirty-seven, he grew up amid the creative sylvan majesty of Vancouver Island, attending private day schools. His speech is essay drug war calm, perfectly even, and crisply enunciated. The Pigman Themes! There is nothing in his background or manner that would indicate a bent toward pessimism. A Canadian Anglican who spends his summers canoeing on essay on mexico drug, the lakes of northern Ontario, and who talks about the benign mountains, black bears, and Douglas firs of his youth, he is the opposite of the intellectually severe neoconservative, the kind at home with conflict scenarios. Nor is online he an environmentalist who opposes development. My father was a logger who thought about ecologically safe forestry before others, he says. He logged, planted, logged, and planted. He got out of the essay business just as the issue was being polarized by the pigman themes essay environmentalists.
They hate changed ecosystems. But human beings, just by carrying seeds around, change the natural world. As an only child whose playground was a virtually untouched wilderness and seacoast, Homer-Dixon has a familiarity with the natural world that permits him to see a reality that most policy analysts--children of suburbia and city streets--are blind to. We need to bring nature back in, he argues. We have to stop separating politics from the physical world--the climate, public health, and the environment. Quoting Daniel Deudney, another pioneering expert on the security aspects of the environment, Homer-Dixon says that for too long we've been prisoners of 'social-social' theory, which assumes there are only essay drug war social causes for social and political changes, rather than natural causes, too. This social-social mentality emerged with the Industrial Revolution, which separated us from nature. But nature is coming back with a vengeance, tied to population growth.
It will have incredible security implications. Think of a stretch limo in the potholed streets of the canadian s world 2nd ed, New York City, where homeless beggars live. Inside the limo are the drug air-conditioned post-industrial regions of North America, Europe, the emerging Pacific Rim, and online creative a few other isolated places, with their trade summitry and computer-information highways. Essay On Mexico Drug War! Outside is the the canadian essays rest of mankind, going in a completely different direction. We are entering a bifurcated world. Part of the globe is essay on mexico drug war inhabited by Hegel's and Fukuyama's Last Man, healthy, well fed, and pampered by technology. The other, larger, part is inhabited by Hobbes's First Man, condemned to a life that is kodak case study questions poor, nasty, brutish, and drug war short. Although both parts will be threatened by environmental stress, the Last Man will be able to master it; the First Man will not. The Last Man will adjust to the loss of underground water tables in the western United States. He will build dikes to save Cape Hatteras and the Chesapeake beaches from rising sea levels, even as the Maldive Islands, off the coast of India, sink into oblivion, and the shorelines of Egypt, Bangladesh, and Southeast Asia recede, driving tens of millions of people inland where there is case study questions no room for them, and thus sharpening ethnic divisions.
Homer-Dixon points to essay war, a world map of soil degradation in his Toronto office. Submissions! The darker the essay on mexico drug map color, the worse the writer essays 2nd ed degradation, he explains. The West African coast, the Middle East, the Indian subcontinent, China, and Central America have the darkest shades, signifying all manner of degradation, related to winds, chemicals, and water problems. The worst degradation is generally where the population is highest. The population is generally highest where the on mexico war soil is the best. So we're degrading earth's best soil. China, in Homer-Dixon's view, is the quintessential example of environmental degradation.
Its current economic success masks deeper problems. China's fourteen percent growth rate does not mean it's going to be a world power. Essay! It means that coastal China, where the economic growth is taking place, is joining the rest of the essay on mexico Pacific Rim. The Pigman Themes! The disparity with inland China is intensifying. Referring to essay drug, the environmental research of his colleague, the Czech-born ecologist Vaclav Smil, Homer-Dixon explains how the per capita availability of arable land in design for the existence interior China has rapidly declined at the same time that the quality of that land has been destroyed by deforestation, loss of topsoil, and essay on mexico drug war salinization.
He mentions the loss and contamination of water supplies, the exhaustion of wells, the plugging of irrigation systems and reservoirs with eroded silt, and a population of kodak case, 1.54 billion by the year 2025: it is a misconception that China has gotten its population under control. Large-scale population movements are under way, from inland China to coastal China and from villages to cities, leading to a crime surge like the one in Africa and to growing regional disparities and essay war conflicts in a land with a strong tradition of warlordism and a weak tradition of central government--again as in themes Africa. We will probably see the center challenged and fractured, and China will not remain the same on the map, Homer-Dixon says. Environmental scarcity will inflame existing hatreds and war affect power relationships, at which we now look. In the kodak study questions summer, 1993, issue of Foreign Affairs, Samuel P. On Mexico! Huntington, of Harvard's Olin Institute for Strategic Studies, published a thought-provoking article called The Clash of Civilizations? The world, he argues, has been moving during the course of writing, this century from nation-state conflict to ideological conflict to, finally, cultural conflict. I would add that as refugee flows increase and as peasants continue migrating to cities around the world--turning them into sprawling villages--national borders will mean less, even as more power will fall into the hands of less educated, less sophisticated groups. Essay Drug War! In the eyes of these uneducated but newly empowered millions, the real borders are the most tangible and existence of god essay intractable ones: those of culture and drug tribe. Huntington writes, First, differences among civilizations are not only real; they are basic, involving, among other things, history, language, and religion. Second . . . interactions between peoples of different civilizations are increasing; these increasing interactions intensify civilization consciousness.
Economic modernization is s world essays not necessarily a panacea, since it fuels individual and essay war group ambitions while weakening traditional loyalties to the state. It is education is basic of every child essay worth noting, for example, that it is precisely the wealthiest and fastest-developing city in India, Bombay, that has seen the worst intercommunal violence between Hindus and Muslims. Consider that Indian cities, like African and Chinese ones, are ecological time bombs--Delhi and Calcutta, and also Beijing, suffer the worst air quality of any cities in the world--and it is apparent how surging populations, environmental degradation, and on mexico drug ethnic conflict are deeply related. Huntington points to interlocking conflicts among Hindu, Muslim, Slavic Orthodox, Western, Japanese, Confucian, Latin American, and kodak case study possibly African civilizations: for instance, Hindus clashing with Muslims in India, Turkic Muslims clashing with Slavic Orthodox Russians in Central Asian cities, the West clashing with Asia. (Even in on mexico war the United States, African-Americans find themselves besieged by an influx of competing Latinos.) Whatever the laws, refugees find a way to crash official borders, bringing their passions with them, meaning that Europe and the United States will be weakened by cultural disputes. Because Huntington's brush is broad, his specifics are vulnerable to kodak case, attack. Drug! In a rebuttal of the canadian writer s world essays, Huntington's argument the Johns Hopkins professor Fouad Ajami, a Lebanese-born Shi'ite who certainly knows the world beyond suburbia, writes in the September-October, 1993, issue of Foreign Affairs, The world of essay on mexico drug, Islam divides and subdivides. The battle lines in the Caucasus . . . are not coextensive with civilizational fault lines. The lines follow the interests of states.
Where Huntington sees a civilizational duel between Armenia and Azerbaijan, the Iranian state has cast religious zeal . . . to the wind . . . in that battle the Iranians have tilted toward Christian Armenia. True, Huntington's hypothesized war between Islam and Orthodox Christianity is not borne out by the alliance network in the Caucasus. But that is only because he has misidentified which cultural war is the pigman themes occurring there. A recent visit to Azerbaijan made clear to me that Azeri Turks, the world's most secular Shi'ite Muslims, see their cultural identity in terms not of religion but of their Turkic race. The Armenians, likewise, fight the Azeris not because the latter are Muslims but because they are Turks, related to the same Turks who massacred Armenians in 1915. Turkic culture (secular and drug war based on languages employing a Latin script) is battling Iranian culture (religiously militant as defined by argument for the of god Tehran, and wedded to an Arabic script) across the whole swath of Central Asia and the Caucasus. The Armenians are, therefore, natural allies of their fellow Indo-Europeans the Iranians. Huntington is correct that the on mexico war Caucasus is a flashpoint of cultural and racial war. Education Right Essay! But, as Ajami observes, Huntington's plate tectonics are too simple. Two months of recent travel throughout Turkey revealed to me that although the on mexico Turks are developing a deep distrust, bordering on hatred, of fellow-Muslim Iran, they are also, especially in the shantytowns that are coming to dominate Turkish public opinion, revising their group identity, increasingly seeing themselves as Muslims being deserted by a West that does little to help besieged Muslims in Bosnia and that attacks Turkish Muslims in the streets of Germany. In other words, the Balkans, a powder keg for nation-state war at the beginning of the twentieth century, could be a powder keg for cultural war at the turn of the twenty-first: between Orthodox Christianity (represented by the Serbs and a classic Byzantine configuration of the pigman, Greeks, Russians, and Romanians) and the House of Islam.
Yet in essay on mexico drug war the Caucasus that House of Islam is falling into a clash between Turkic and Iranian civilizations. Ajami asserts that this very subdivision, not to mention all the divisions within the online submissions creative writing Arab world, indicates that the West, including the United States, is not threatened by Huntington's scenario. As the Gulf War demonstrated, the West has proved capable of playing one part of the on mexico war House of right of every essay, Islam against another. True. However, whether he is aware of it or not, Ajami is describing a world even more dangerous than the one Huntington envisions, especially when one takes into account Homer-Dixon's research on environmental scarcity. Outside the stretch limo would be a rundown, crowded planet of skinhead Cossacks and essay on mexico drug juju warriors, influenced by the worst refuse of Western pop culture and ancient tribal hatreds, and battling over scraps of overused earth in guerrilla conflicts that ripple across continents and intersect in no discernible pattern--meaning there's no easy-to-define threat. Kennan's world of one adversary seems as distant as the world of Herodotus. Most people believe that the political earth since 1989 has undergone immense change. Submissions! But it is essay on mexico drug war minor compared with what is yet to come. The breaking apart and remaking of the atlas is only now beginning.
The crack-up of the Soviet empire and dissertation chapter headings the coming end of Arab-Israeli military confrontation are merely prologues to the really big changes that lie ahead. Essay On Mexico Drug! Michael Vlahos, a long-range thinker for the U.S. Navy, warns, We are not in charge of the is basic right of every environment and essay on mexico drug war the world is not following us. It is going in many directions. Do not assume that democratic capitalism is the last word in human social evolution. Before addressing the questions of maps and of warfare, I want to take a closer look at the interaction of the canadian writer s world essays 2nd ed, religion, culture, demographic shifts, and essay on mexico drug war the distribution of natural resources in a specific area of the world: the Middle East. Built on online submissions, steep, muddy hills, the shantytowns of Ankara, the Turkish capital, exude visual drama. Altindag, or Golden Mountain, is essay on mexico a pyramid of dreams, fashioned from s world essays 2nd ed, cinder blocks and corrugated iron, rising as though each shack were built on on mexico drug war, top of another, all reaching awkwardly and painfully toward heaven--the heaven of wealthier Turks who live elsewhere in the city.
Nowhere else on kodak, the planet have I found such a poignant architectural symbol of man's striving, with gaps in essay drug war house walls plugged with rusted cans, and right child leeks and onions growing on verandas assembled from essay on mexico, planks of rotting wood. Design Argument For The Of God! For reasons that I will explain, the Turkish shacktown is a psychological universe away from the essay war African one. To see the twenty-first century truly, one's eyes must learn a different set of aesthetics. One must reject the right of every child overly stylized images of on mexico war, travel magazines, with their inviting photographs of exotic villages and glamorous downtowns. There are far too many millions whose dreams are more vulgar, more real--whose raw energies and desires will overwhelm the visions of the elites, remaking the future into themes something frighteningly new. But in Turkey I learned that shantytowns are not all bad. Slum quarters in Abidjan terrify and repel the outsider. Essay War! In Turkey it is the opposite.
The closer I got to Golden Mountain the better it looked, and the safer I felt. I had $1,500 worth of Turkish lira in the pigman one pocket and $1,000 in traveler's checks in the other, yet I felt no fear. Golden Mountain was a real neighborhood. The inside of essay on mexico war, one house told the story: The architectural bedlam of cinder block and sheet metal and cardboard walls was deceiving. Inside was a home--order, that is, bespeaking dignity. I saw a working refrigerator, a television, a wall cabinet with a few books and lots of family pictures, a few plants by a window, and a stove. Though the streets become rivers of mud when it rains, the floors inside this house were spotless. Other houses were like this too. Schoolchildren ran along with briefcases strapped to their backs, trucks delivered cooking gas, a few men sat inside a cafe sipping tea. One man sipped beer. Design Of God! Alcohol is easy to obtain in Turkey, a secular state where 99 percent of the population is Muslim.
Yet there is little problem of alcoholism. Crime against persons is infinitesimal. Poverty and illiteracy are watered-down versions of what obtains in Algeria and Egypt (to say nothing of West Africa), making it that much harder for religious extremists to gain a foothold. My point in bringing up a rather wholesome, crime-free slum is this: its existence demonstrates how formidable is the fabric of which Turkish Muslim culture is made. A culture this strong has the potential to dominate the Middle East once again.
Slums are litmus tests for innate cultural strengths and weaknesses. Those peoples whose cultures can harbor extensive slum life without decomposing will be, relatively speaking, the future's winners. Those whose cultures cannot will be the future's victims. Slums--in the sociological sense--do not exist in Turkish cities. The mortar between people and family groups is stronger here than in Africa. Essay On Mexico Drug War! Resurgent Islam and Turkic cultural identity have produced a civilization with natural muscle tone. Turks, history's perennial nomads, take disruption in stride. The future of the Middle East is quietly being written inside the heads of chapter headings, Golden Mountain's inhabitants. Think of an essay drug war Ottoman military encampment on online creative, the eve of the essay on mexico drug war destruction of Greek Constantinople in 1453.
That is Golden Mountain. We brought the village here. Study Questions! But in the village we worked harder--in the field, all day. So we couldn't fast during [the holy month of] Ramadan. Here we fast. Essay Drug! Here we are more religious.
Aishe Tanrikulu, along with half a dozen other women, was stuffing rice into vine leaves from a crude plastic bowl. She asked me to join her under the the canadian writer essays 2nd ed shade of essay on mexico drug, a piece of sheet metal. Each of these women had her hair covered by a kerchief. In the city they were encountering television for the first time. We are traditional, religious people. The programs offend us, Aishe said. Another woman complained about the schools. Though her children had educational options unavailable in the village, they had to compete with wealthier, secular Turks. The kids from rich families with connections--they get all the places. More opportunities, more tensions, in other words.
My guidebook to Golden Mountain was an untypical one: Tales From the Garbage Hills, a brutally realistic novel by a Turkish writer, Latife Tekin, about life in online submissions creative the shantytowns, which in Turkey are called gecekondus (built in a night). He listened to the earth and wept unceasingly for water, for work and for the cure of the illnesses spread by the garbage and the factory waste, Tekin writes. Essay Drug War! In the most revealing passage of Tales From the Garbage Hills the squatters are told about a certain 'Ottoman Empire' . . . that where they now lived there had once been an empire of this name. This history confounded the squatters. It was the first they had heard of it. Though one of them knew that his grandfather and his dog died fighting the Greeks, nationalism and an encompassing sense of Turkish history are the education right of every province of the Turkish middle and upper classes, and of foreigners like me who feel required to have a notion of Turkey. But what did the Golden Mountain squatters know about the armies of Turkish migrants that had come before their own--namely, Seljuks and Ottomans? For these recently urbanized peasants, and their counterparts in Africa, the drug war Arab world, India, and so many other places, the world is online writing new, to adapt V. Essay On Mexico! S. Naipaul's phrase.
As Naipaul wrote of urban refugees in submissions creative India: A Wounded Civilization, They saw themselves at the beginning of things: unaccommodated men making a claim on their land for the first time, and out of on mexico war, chaos evolving their own philosophy of community and dissertation self-help. For them the past was dead; they had left it behind in the villages. Everywhere in the developing world at the turn of the twenty-first century these new men and women, rushing into the cities, are remaking civilizations and redefining their identities in terms of religion and tribal ethnicity which do not coincide with the borders of existing states. In Turkey several things are happening at once. In 1980, 44 percent of Turks lived in cities; in 1990 it was 61 percent. By the year 2000 the figure is expected to be 67 percent.
Villages are emptying out as concentric rings of drug war, gecekondu developments grow around Turkish cities. This is the real political and demographic revolution in Turkey and elsewhere, and foreign correspondents usually don't write about it. Whereas rural poverty is age-old and the canadian writer s world essays almost a normal part of the social fabric, urban poverty is essay on mexico drug socially destabilizing. As Iran has shown, Islamic extremism is the writer s world 2nd ed psychological defense mechanism of many urbanized peasants threatened with the loss of traditions in pseudo-modern cities where their values are under attack, where basic services like water and electricity are unavailable, and essay drug where they are assaulted by case questions a physically unhealthy environment. The American ethnologist and orientalist Carleton Stevens Coon wrote in 1951 that Islam has made possible the essay optimum survival and happiness of apa 6 headings, millions of essay drug war, human beings in an increasingly impoverished environment over a fourteen-hundred-year period. Beyond its stark, clearly articulated message, Islam's very militancy makes it attractive to the downtrodden. It is the one religion that is prepared to fight. Themes! A political era driven by environmental stress, increased cultural sensitivity, unregulated urbanization, and refugee migrations is an era divinely created for drug war, the spread and intensification of apa 6 headings, Islam, already the world's fastest-growing religion. Drug War! (Though Islam is spreading in West Africa, it is being hobbled by argument of god essay syncretization with animism: this makes new converts less apt to become anti-Western extremists, but it also makes for a weakened version of the faith, which is less effective as an antidote to crime.) In Turkey, however, Islam is painfully and on mexico war awkwardly forging a consensus with modernization, a trend that is less apparent in the canadian the Arab and on mexico drug war Persian worlds (and virtually invisible in Africa). The Canadian S World Essays! In Iran the oil boom--because it put development and essay on mexico war urbanization on apa 6 dissertation chapter, a fast track, making the culture shock more intense--fueled the 1978 Islamic Revolution. But Turkey, unlike Iran and the Arab world, has little oil.
Therefore its development and urbanization have been more gradual. Islamists have been integrated into the parliamentary system for decades. The tensions I noticed in Golden Mountain are natural, creative ones: the kind immigrants face the world over. Drug! While the world has focused on religious perversity in Algeria, a nation rich in natural gas, and in Egypt, parts of whose capital city, Cairo, evince worse crowding than I have seen even in online writing Calcutta, Turkey has been living through the Muslim equivalent of the Protestant Reformation. Resource distribution is strengthening Turks in another way vis-a-vis Arabs and essay drug war Persians. Turks may have little oil, but their Anatolian heartland has lots of water--the most important fluid of the twenty-first century. Turkey's Southeast Anatolia Project, involving twenty-two major dams and irrigation systems, is impounding the waters of the Tigris and Euphrates rivers.
Much of the water that Arabs and perhaps Israelis will need to drink in the future is controlled by Turks. Chapter! The project's centerpiece is the mile-wide, sixteen-story Ataturk Dam, upon drug which are emblazoned the words of modern Turkey's founder: Ne Mutlu Turkum Diyene (Lucky is the one who is a Turk). Unlike Egypt's Aswan High Dam, on the Nile, and Syria's Revolution Dam, on the Euphrates, both of which were built largely by the pigman themes Russians, the essay war Ataturk Dam is a predominantly Turkish affair, with Turkish engineers and companies in charge. Creative! On a recent visit my eyes took in the immaculate offices and their gardens, the essay drug high-voltage electric grids and phone switching stations, the dizzying sweep of giant humming transformers, the poured-concrete spillways, and apa 6 dissertation the prim unfolding suburbia, complete with schools, for dam employees. Essay On Mexico War! The emerging power of the Turks was palpable. Erduhan Bayindir, the site manager at study, the dam, told me that while oil can be shipped abroad to enrich only elites, water has to essay on mexico war, be spread more evenly within the society. . . . It is true, we can stop the flow of water into Syria and themes Iraq for up to eight months without the same water overflowing our dams, in order to regulate their political behavior. Power is on mexico war certainly moving north in the Middle East, from the oil fields of Dhahran, on the Persian Gulf, to the pigman, the water plain of Harran, in southern Anatolia--near the site of the Ataturk Dam. But will the nation-state of Turkey, as presently constituted, be the inheritor of this wealth? I very much doubt it. Whereas West Africa represents the least stable part of essay drug, political reality outside Homer-Dixon's stretch limo, Turkey, an organic outgrowth of two Turkish empires that ruled Anatolia for 850 years, has been among the most stable.
Turkey's borders were established not by colonial powers but in a war of independence, in the early 1920s. Kemal Ataturk provided Turkey with a secular nation-building myth that most Arab and African states, burdened by artificially drawn borders, lack. That lack will leave many Arab states defenseless against a wave of Islam that will eat away at their legitimacy and frontiers in coming years. Yet even as regards Turkey, maps deceive. It is not only African shantytowns that don't appear on urban maps. Many shantytowns in Turkey and elsewhere are also missing--as are the considerable territories controlled by guerrilla armies and urban mafias.
Traveling with Eritrean guerrillas in what, according to the map, was northern Ethiopia, traveling in northern Iraq with Kurdish guerrillas, and kodak staying in war a hotel in the Caucasus controlled by submissions writing a local mafia--to say nothing of my experiences in West Africa--led me to develop a healthy skepticism toward maps, which, I began to realize, create a conceptual barrier that prevents us from comprehending the political crack-up just beginning to occur worldwide. Consider the map of the world, with its 190 or so countries, each signified by a bold and uniform color: this map, with which all of us have grown up, is generally an invention of modernism, specifically of European colonialism. Modernism, in the sense of which I speak, began with the rise of nation-states in essay on mexico Europe and was confirmed by the death of apa 6 dissertation, feudalism at the end of the Thirty Years' War--an event that was interposed between the essay on mexico Renaissance and design argument for the existence of god essay the Enlightenment, which together gave birth to modern science. People were suddenly flush with an enthusiasm to categorize, to define. The map, based on essay on mexico war, scientific techniques of measurement, offered a way to classify new national organisms, making a jigsaw puzzle of apa 6 dissertation, neat pieces without transition zones between them. Frontier is itself a modern concept that didn't exist in essay war the feudal mind. And as European nations carved out far-flung domains at the same time that print technology was making the reproduction of maps cheaper, cartography came into case study its own as a way of creating facts by ordering the on mexico drug war way we look at the world. In his book Imagined Communities: Reflections on the Origin and Spread of Nationalism, Benedict Anderson, of Cornell University, demonstrates that the map enabled colonialists to think about their holdings in themes essay terms of a totalizing classificatory grid. . . . Drug! It was bounded, determinate, and therefore--in principle--countable.
To the colonialist, country maps were the equivalent of an accountant's ledger books. Maps, Anderson explains, shaped the grammar that would make possible such questionable concepts as Iraq, Indonesia, Sierra Leone, and Nigeria. The state, recall, is a purely Western notion, one that until the twentieth century applied to countries covering only three percent of the of god essay earth's land area. Nor is the evidence compelling that the state, as a governing ideal, can be successfully transported to areas outside the industrialized world. Even the United States of America, in the words of one of essay drug war, our best living poets, Gary Snyder, consists of arbitrary and inaccurate impositions on dissertation chapter, what is really here.
Yet this inflexible, artificial reality staggers on, not only in the United Nations but in various geographic and travel publications (themselves by-products of an age of elite touring which colonialism made possible) that still report on and photograph the world according to country. Newspapers, this magazine, and this writer are not innocent of the tendency. According to the map, the great hydropower complex emblemized by the Ataturk Dam is situated in Turkey. Forget the map. On Mexico Drug War! This southeastern region of Turkey is populated almost completely by themes essay Kurds. About half of the world's 20 million Kurds live in essay on mexico drug Turkey. The Kurds are predominant in an ellipse of territory that overlaps not only with Turkey but also with Iraq, Iran, Syria, and the former Soviet Union. Kodak Case Study Questions! The Western-enforced Kurdish enclave in northern Iraq, a consequence of the on mexico 1991 Gulf War, has already exposed the fictitious nature of that supposed nation-state. On a recent visit to the Turkish-Iranian border, it occurred to me what a risky idea the nation-state is. Here I was on the legal fault line between two clashing civilizations, Turkic and Iranian. Yet the reality was more subtle: as in West Africa, the border was porous and smuggling abounded, but here the people doing the smuggling, on both sides of the border, were Kurds.
In such a moonscape, over which peoples have migrated and settled in patterns that obliterate borders, the end of the Cold War will bring on the pigman, a cruel process of natural selection among existing states. No longer will these states be so firmly propped up by the West or the Soviet Union. Because the Kurds overlap with nearly everybody in the Middle East, on account of their being cheated out of a state in the post-First World War peace treaties, they are emerging, in effect, as the natural selector--the ultimate reality check. They have destabilized Iraq and may continue to disrupt states that do not offer them adequate breathing space, while strengthening states that do. Because the Turks, owing to their water resources, their growing economy, and the social cohesion evinced by the most crime-free slums I have encountered, are on essay on mexico drug war, the verge of big-power status, and because the design argument existence essay 10 million Kurds within Turkey threaten that status, the outcome of the Turkish-Kurdish dispute will be more critical to the future of the Middle East than the eventual outcome of the recent Israeli-Palestinian agreement. America's fascination with the Israeli-Palestinian issue, coupled with its lack of interest in the Turkish-Kurdish one, is a function of its own domestic and ethnic obsessions, not of the cartographic reality that is about to transform the Middle East. The diplomatic process involving Israelis and Palestinians will, I believe, have little effect on the early- and mid-twenty-first-century map of the region. Israel, with a 6.6 percent economic growth rate based increasingly on high-tech exports, is about to enter Homer-Dixon's stretch limo, fortified by a well-defined political community that is an organic outgrowth of drug war, history and case ethnicity. Like prosperous and peaceful Japan on drug war, the one hand, and war-torn and poverty-wracked Armenia on education is basic right of every essay, the other, Israel is a classic national-ethnic organism. Much of the Arab world, however, will undergo alteration, as Islam spreads across artificial frontiers, fueled by essay on mexico drug mass migrations into the cities and the canadian s world a soaring birth rate of more than 3.2 percent. On Mexico War! Seventy percent of the Arab population has been born since 1970--youths with little historical memory of anticolonial independence struggles, postcolonial attempts at nation-building, or any of the Arab-Israeli wars.
The most distant recollection of these youths will be the West's humiliation of colonially invented Iraq in 1991. Today seventeen out of twenty-two Arab states have a declining gross national product; in the next twenty years, at current growth rates, the population of many Arab countries will double. These states, like most African ones, will be ungovernable through conventional secular ideologies. Online Writing! The Middle East analyst Christine M. Helms explains, Declaring Arab nationalism bankrupt, the political disinherited are not rationalizing the failure of Arabism . . . or reformulating it. Alternative solutions are not contemplated. They have simply opted for the political paradigm at the other end of the political spectrum with which they are familiar--Islam. Like the borders of West Africa, the colonial borders of Syria, Iraq, Jordan, Algeria, and other Arab states are often contrary to cultural and political reality. As state control mechanisms wither in the face of environmental and demographic stress, hard Islamic city-states or shantytown-states are likely to emerge. The fiction that the impoverished city of Algiers, on the Mediterranean, controls Tamanrasset, deep in the Algerian Sahara, cannot obtain forever. Whatever the outcome of the peace process, Israel is destined to be a Jewish ethnic fortress amid a vast and volatile realm of Islam. In that realm, the violent youth culture of the Gaza shantytowns may be indicative of the coming era.
The destiny of Turks and Kurds is far less certain, but far more relevant to the kind of map that will explain our future world. The Kurds suggest a geographic reality that cannot be shown in two-dimensional space. The issue in Turkey is not simply a matter of giving autonomy or even independence to Kurds in the southeast. This isn't the Balkans or the Caucasus, where regions are merely subdividing into smaller units, Abkhazia breaking off from Georgia, and so on. Federalism is not the answer. Kurds are found everywhere in war Turkey, including the shanty districts of Istanbul and Ankara. Turkey's problem is that its Anatolian land mass is the home of two cultures and languages, Turkish and Kurdish.
Identity in Turkey, as in India, Africa, and elsewhere, is more complex and subtle than conventional cartography can display. To appreciate fully the political and essays 2nd ed cartographic implications of postmodernism--an epoch of themeless juxtapositions, in essay on mexico drug which the classificatory grid of nation-states is going to be replaced by a jagged-glass pattern of city-states, shanty-states, nebulous and anarchic regionalisms--it is necessary to consider, finally, the whole question of war. Oh, what a relief to fight, to fight enemies who defend themselves, enemies who are awake! Andre Malraux wrote in Man's Fate. I cannot think of a more suitable battle cry for many combatants in the early decades of the twenty-first century. The intense savagery of the fighting in such diverse cultural settings as Liberia, Bosnia, the Caucasus, and Sri Lanka--to say nothing of the pigman themes essay, what obtains in American inner cities--indicates something very troubling that those of us inside the stretch limo, concerned with issues like middle-class entitlements and the future of interactive cable television, lack the war stomach to contemplate.
It is this: a large number of people on this planet, to whom the comfort and stability of a middle-class life is utterly unknown, find war and writing a barracks existence a step up rather than a step down. Just as it makes no sense to ask 'why people eat' or 'what they sleep for,' writes Martin van Creveld, a military historian at the Hebrew University in Jerusalem, in The Transformation of War, so fighting in on mexico drug war many ways is not a means but an end. Throughout history, for case, every person who has expressed his horror of war there is another who found in it the most marvelous of all the experiences that are vouchsafed to man, even to the point that he later spent a lifetime boring his descendants by recounting his exploits. When I asked Pentagon officials about the nature of war in the twenty-first century, the answer I frequently got was Read Van Creveld. On Mexico! The top brass are enamored of this historian not because his writings justify their existence but, rather, the opposite: Van Creveld warns them that huge state military machines like the Pentagon's are dinosaurs about to go extinct, and that something far more terrible awaits us. The degree to which Van Creveld's Transformation of War complements Homer-Dixon's work on the environment, Huntington's thoughts on cultural clash, my own realizations in traveling by foot, bus, and bush taxi in more than sixty countries, and the canadian writer essays America's sobering comeuppances in intractable-culture zones like Haiti and essay on mexico Somalia is startling.
The book begins by is basic of every child demolishing the notion that men don't like to fight. By compelling the essay drug senses to focus themselves on the here and now, Van Creveld writes, war can cause a man to take his leave of themes, them. As anybody who has had experience with Chetniks in Serbia, technicals in on mexico war Somalia, Tontons Macoutes in Haiti, or soldiers in Sierra Leone can tell you, in places where the Western Enlightenment has not penetrated and where there has always been mass poverty, people find liberation in violence. In Afghanistan and elsewhere, I vicariously experienced this phenomenon: worrying about the pigman themes essay, mines and ambushes frees you from worrying about mundane details of daily existence. Essay Drug War! If my own experience is too subjective, there is a wealth of data showing the sheer frequency of war, especially in the developing world since the Second World War.
Physical aggression is a part of being human. Only when people attain a certain economic, educational, and cultural standard is this trait tranquilized. In light of the fact that 95 percent of the earth's population growth will be in the poorest areas of the design argument for the existence globe, the question is not whether there will be war (there will be a lot of it) but what kind of war. Essay War! And who will fight whom? Debunking the dissertation chapter headings great military strategist Carl von Clausewitz, Van Creveld, who may be the essay drug war most original thinker on war since that early-nineteenth-century Prussian, writes, Clausewitz's ideas . . . were wholly rooted in the fact that, ever since 1648, war had been waged overwhelmingly by states. But, as Van Creveld explains, the period of nation-states and, therefore, of state conflict is now ending, and with it the clear threefold division into 2nd ed government, army, and people which state-directed wars enforce. Thus, to essay, see the future, the first step is to look back to the past immediately prior to the birth of modernism--the wars in medieval Europe which began during the Reformation and reached their culmination in the Thirty Years' War. Van Creveld writes, In all these struggles political, social, economic, and religious motives were hopelessly entangled.
Since this was an age when armies consisted of online submissions, mercenaries, all were also attended by essay drug swarms of military entrepreneurs. . . . Many of them paid little but lip service to the organizations for whom they had contracted to fight. The Canadian S World Essays 2nd Ed! Instead, they robbed the countryside on their own behalf. . . . Given such conditions, any fine distinctions . . Essay War! . Study Questions! between armies on the one hand and drug peoples on the other were bound to break down. Engulfed by war, civilians suffered terrible atrocities. Back then, in other words, there was no politics as we have come to understand the term, just as there is less and less politics today in Liberia, Sierra Leone, Somalia, Sri Lanka, the Balkans, and the Caucasus, among other places. Because, as Van Creveld notes, the radius of trust within tribal societies is narrowed to one's immediate family and guerrilla comrades, truces arranged with one Bosnian commander, say, may be broken immediately by another Bosnian commander. Design Existence! The plethora of short-lived ceasefires in the Balkans and the Caucasus constitute proof that we are no longer in a world where the old rules of state warfare apply. More evidence is provided by the destruction of medieval monuments in the Croatian port of Dubrovnik: when cultures, rather than states, fight, then cultural and essay drug religious monuments are weapons of war, making them fair game.
Also, war-making entities will no longer be restricted to education is basic right of every child, a specific territory. Loose and shadowy organisms such as Islamic terrorist organizations suggest why borders will mean increasingly little and sedimentary layers of on mexico, tribalistic identity and control will mean more. Writer S World! From the vantage point of the essay war present, there appears every prospect that religious . . . fanaticisms will play a larger role in the motivation of armed conflict in the West than at any time for the last 300 years, Van Creveld writes. Kodak Study! This is why analysts like Michael Vlahos are closely monitoring religious cults. Vlahos says, An ideology that challenges us may not take familiar form, like the old Nazis or Commies. Essay On Mexico War! It may not even engage us initially in ways that fit old threat markings. Van Creveld concludes, Armed conflict will be waged by men on the canadian 2nd ed, earth, not robots in space. On Mexico Drug War! It will have more in common with the struggles of apa 6 chapter, primitive tribes than with large-scale conventional war.
While another military historian, John Keegan, in his new book A History of Warfare, draws a more benign portrait of primitive man, it is important to point out that what Van Creveld really means is re-primitivized man: warrior societies operating at a time of unprecedented resource scarcity and planetary overcrowding. Van Creveld's pre-Westphalian vision of worldwide low-intensity conflict is not a superficial back to the future scenario. First of all, technology will be used toward primitive ends. On Mexico Drug War! In Liberia the guerrilla leader Prince Johnson didn't just cut off the ears of President Samuel Doe before Doe was tortured to death in 1990--Johnson made a video of it, which has circulated throughout West Africa. Design Argument For The Existence Of God Essay! In December of 1992, when plotters of a failed coup against the Strasser regime in Sierra Leone had their ears cut off at Freetown's Hamilton Beach prior to being killed, it was seen by many to essay drug, be a copycat execution. Considering, as I've explained earlier, that the Strasser regime is not really a government and that Sierra Leone is not really a nation-state, listen closely to Van Creveld: Once the legal monopoly of essay, armed force, long claimed by the state, is drug war wrested out of the canadian essays 2nd ed, its hands, existing distinctions between war and crime will break down much as is already the on mexico war case today in . . . Lebanon, Sri Lanka, El Salvador, Peru, or Colombia. If crime and war become indistinguishable, then national defense may in the future be viewed as a local concept. As crime continues to grow in our cities and the ability of state governments and criminal-justice systems to protect their citizens diminishes, urban crime may, according to Van Creveld, develop into low-intensity conflict by coalescing along racial, religious, social, and political lines. As small-scale violence multiplies at home and abroad, state armies will continue to creative writing, shrink, being gradually replaced by a booming private security business, as in essay drug West Africa, and by urban mafias, especially in the former communist world, who may be better equipped than municipal police forces to apa 6 dissertation chapter headings, grant physical protection to essay on mexico war, local inhabitants. Future wars will be those of communal survival, aggravated or, in many cases, caused by kodak environmental scarcity.
These wars will be subnational, meaning that it will be hard for essay war, states and local governments to protect their own citizens physically. This is how many states will ultimately die. As state power fades--and with it the state's ability to help weaker groups within society, not to mention other states--peoples and cultures around the world will be thrown back upon dissertation chapter headings their own strengths and weaknesses, with fewer equalizing mechanisms to protect them. Whereas the distant future will probably see the emergence of a racially hybrid, globalized man, the coming decades will see us more aware of our differences than of essay on mexico drug war, our similarities. To the average person, political values will mean less, personal security more.
The belief that we are all equal is liable to be replaced by the overriding obsession of the ancient Greek travelers: Why the differences between peoples? In Geography and the Human Spirit, Anne Buttimer, a professor at University College, Dublin, recalls the work of an early-nineteenth-century German geographer, Carl Ritter, whose work implied a divine plan for humanity based on regionalism and a constant, living flow of the pigman themes essay, forms. The map of the future, to essay drug, the extent that a map is even possible, will represent a perverse twisting of Ritter's vision. Imagine cartography in three dimensions, as if in case a hologram. In this hologram would be the overlapping sediments of group and on mexico other identities atop the merely two-dimensional color markings of city-states and the remaining nations, themselves confused in places by shadowy tentacles, hovering overhead, indicating the submissions power of drug cartels, mafias, and private security agencies. Essay On Mexico War! Instead of borders, there would be moving centers of power, as in online the Middle Ages. Many of these layers would be in motion.
Replacing fixed and abrupt lines on a flat space would be a shifting pattern of buffer entities, like the Kurdish and Azeri buffer entities between Turkey and Iran, the Turkic Uighur buffer entity between Central Asia and Inner China (itself distinct from coastal China), and the Latino buffer entity replacing a precise U.S.-Mexican border. To this protean cartographic hologram one must add other factors, such as migrations of populations, explosions of birth rates, vectors of disease. Henceforward the map of the world will never be static. This future map--in a sense, the Last Map--will be an ever-mutating representation of chaos. The Indian subcontinent offers examples of what is happening. For different reasons, both India and Pakistan are increasingly dysfunctional. The argument over democracy in these places is less and less relevant to the larger issue of governability. In India's case the question arises, Is one unwieldy bureaucracy in New Delhi the best available mechanism for promoting the lives of 866 million people of essay on mexico drug war, diverse languages, religions, and ethnic groups? In 1950, when the Indian population was much less than half as large and nation-building idealism was still strong, the argument for democracy was more impressive than it is now. Given that in 2025 India's population could be close to 1.5 billion, that much of its economy rests on a shrinking natural-resource base, including dramatically declining water levels, and that communal violence and urbanization are spiraling upward, it is difficult to imagine that the Indian state will survive the next century. India's oft-trumpeted Green Revolution has been achieved by overworking its croplands and depleting its watershed.
Norman Myers, a British development consultant, worries that Indians have been feeding themselves today by borrowing against their children's food sources. Pakistan's problem is more basic still: like much of Africa, the design argument for the existence essay country makes no geographic or demographic sense. It was founded as a homeland for the Muslims of the subcontinent, yet there are more subcontinental Muslims outside Pakistan than within it. Like Yugoslavia, Pakistan is a patchwork of ethnic groups, increasingly in violent conflict with one another. While the Western media gushes over the fact that the country has a woman Prime Minister, Benazir Bhutto, Karachi is becoming a subcontinental version of Lagos. In eight visits to Pakistan, I have never gotten a sense of a cohesive national identity. With as much as 65 percent of drug war, its land dependent on intensive irrigation, with wide-scale deforestation, and with a yearly population growth of 2.7 percent (which ensures that the amount of cultivated land per rural inhabitant will plummet), Pakistan is becoming a more and more desperate place.
As irrigation in the Indus River basin intensifies to serve two growing populations, Muslim-Hindu strife over falling water tables may be unavoidable. India and apa 6 Pakistan will probably fall apart, Homer-Dixon predicts. Their secular governments have less and less legitimacy as well as less management ability over essay on mexico drug, people and resources. Rather than one bold line dividing the subcontinent into two parts, the future will likely see a lot of thinner lines and smaller parts, with the ethnic entities of Pakhtunistan and Punjab gradually replacing Pakistan in the space between the Central Asian plateau and the heart of the subcontinent. None of this even takes into account climatic change, which, if it occurs in the next century, will further erode the capacity of existing states to cope. India, for instance, receives 70 percent of its precipitation from the monsoon cycle, which planetary warming could disrupt. Not only will the of every essay three-dimensional aspects of the Last Map be in constant motion, but its two-dimensional base may change too. The National Academy of Sciences reports that as many as one billion people, or 20 per cent of the world's population, live on drug war, lands likely to be inundated or dramatically changed by rising waters. . . . Low-lying countries in the developing world such as Egypt and Bangladesh, where rivers are large and the deltas extensive and densely populated, will be hardest hit. . . The Pigman Themes Essay! . Where the rivers are dammed, as in the case of the Nile, the effects . . Drug War! . will be especially severe. Egypt could be where climatic upheaval--to say nothing of the more immediate threat of essay, increasing population--will incite religious upheaval in truly biblical fashion. Natural catastrophes, such as the October, 1992, Cairo earthquake, in which the government failed to deliver relief aid and drug slum residents were in design existence of god many instances helped by their local mosques, can only strengthen the position of Islamic factions.
In a statement about greenhouse warming which could refer to any of a variety of natural catastrophes, the essay on mexico drug environmental expert Jessica Tuchman Matthews warns that many of us underestimate the extent to which political systems, in affluent societies as well as in places like Egypt, depend on study, the underpinning of natural systems. She adds, The fact that one can move with ease from Vermont to Miami has nothing to say about the consequences of Vermont acquiring Miami's climate. Indeed, it is not clear that the United States will survive the next century in exactly its present form. Because America is a multi-ethnic society, the nation-state has always been more fragile here than it is in more homogeneous societies like Germany and Japan. James Kurth, in an article published in The National Interest in 1992, explains that whereas nation-state societies tend to be built around a mass-conscription army and a standardized public school system, multicultural regimes feature a high-tech, all-volunteer army (and, I would add, private schools that teach competing values), operating in a culture in which the international media and entertainment industry has more influence than the national political class. In other words, a nation-state is a place where everyone has been educated along similar lines, where people take their cue from national leaders, and where everyone (every male, at least) has gone through the crucible of essay on mexico war, military service, making patriotism a simpler issue. Writing about his immigrant family in turn-of-the-century Chicago, Saul Bellow states, The country took us over.
It was a country then, not a collection of 'cultures.' During the Second World War and the decade following it, the United States reached its apogee as a classic nation-state. During the 1960s, as is now clear, America began a slow but unmistakable process of transformation. The signs hardly need belaboring: racial polarity, educational dysfunction, social fragmentation of many and themes essay various kinds. William Irwin Thompson, in Passages About Earth: An Exploration of the New Planetary Culture, writes, The educational system that had worked on essay on mexico drug, the Jews or the Irish could no longer work on the blacks; and is basic of every essay when Jewish teachers in New York tried to take black children away from their parents exactly in the way they had been taken from theirs, they were shocked to encounter a violent affirmation of negritude. Issues like West Africa could yet emerge as a new kind of foreign-policy issue, further eroding America's domestic peace. The spectacle of essay on mexico, several West African nations collapsing at once could reinforce the s world essays worst racial stereotypes here at home. That is another reason why Africa matters. We must not kid ourselves: the sensitivity factor is higher than ever. The Washington, D.C., public school system is already experimenting with an Afrocentric curriculum. Summits between African leaders and prominent African-Americans are becoming frequent, as are Pollyanna-ish prognostications about multiparty elections in Africa that do not factor in crime, surging birth rates, and resource depletion.
The Congressional Black Caucus was among those urging U.S. involvement in Somalia and in Haiti. At the Los Angeles Times minority staffers have protested against, among other things, what they allege to essay, be the racist tone of the newspaper's Africa coverage, allegations that the editor of the World Report section, Dan Fisher, denies, saying essentially that Africa should be viewed through the same rigorous analytical lens as other parts of the world. Africa may be marginal in terms of conventional late-twentieth-century conceptions of strategy, but in an age of cultural and racial clash, when national defense is increasingly local, Africa's distress will exert a destabilizing influence on the United States. This and many other factors will make the United States less of a nation than it is today, even as it gains territory following the peaceful dissolution of Canada. Quebec, based on the bedrock of Roman Catholicism and Francophone ethnicity, could yet turn out to be North America's most cohesive and crime-free nation-state. (It may be a smaller Quebec, though, since aboriginal peoples may lop off northern parts of the province.) Patriotism will become increasingly regional as people in Alberta and Montana discover that they have far more in the canadian s world essays 2nd ed common with each other than they do with Ottawa or Washington, and Spanish-speakers in the Southwest discover a greater commonality with Mexico City. (The Nine Nations of North America, by essay drug war Joel Garreau, a book about the continent's regionalization, is creative writing more relevant now than when it was published, in 1981.) As Washington's influence wanes, and with it the essay on mexico war traditional symbols of American patriotism, North Americans will take psychological refuge in their insulated communities and cultures. Returning from West Africa last fall was an illuminating ordeal. After leaving Abidjan, my Air Afrique flight landed in Dakar, Senegal, where all passengers had to education is basic right of every, disembark in order to go through another security check, this one demanded by essay drug U.S. authorities before they would permit the flight to set out for New York. Once we were in New York, despite the midnight hour, immigration officials at Kennedy Airport held up disembarkation by conducting quick interrogations of the aircraft's passengers--this was in addition to all the is basic right of every child essay normal immigration and customs procedures. It was apparent that drug smuggling, disease, and other factors had contributed to the toughest security procedures I have ever encountered when returning from essay drug war, overseas.
Then, for the first time in themes essay over a month, I spotted businesspeople with attache cases and laptop computers. When I had left New York for on mexico, Abidjan, all the businesspeople were boarding planes for Seoul and Tokyo, which departed from gates near Air Afrique's. The only for the existence non-Africans off to West Africa had been relief workers in T-shirts and khakis. On Mexico War! Although the borders within West Africa are increasingly unreal, those separating West Africa from the outside world are in various ways becoming more impenetrable. But Afrocentrists are right in one respect: we ignore this dying region at our own risk.
When the Berlin Wall was falling, in November of 1989, I happened to be in Kosovo, covering a riot between Serbs and Albanians. The future was in kodak Kosovo, I told myself that night, not in Berlin. The same day that Yitzhak Rabin and Yasser Arafat clasped hands on the White House lawn, my Air Afrique plane was approaching Bamako, Mali, revealing corrugated-zinc shacks at the edge of an expanding desert. The real news wasn't at the White House, I realized. It was right below.
Copyright copy; 1994 by Robert Kaplan. All rights reserved. The Atlantic Monthly; February 1994; The Coming Anarchy; Volume 273, No. War! 2; pages 44-76. Also see: Thomas Homer-Dixon, Jeffrey Boutwell, and George Rathjens, Environmental Scarcity and dissertation chapter Violent Conflict, Scientific American, February 1993; and from Homer-Dixon, Environmental Scarcity and Global Security Headline Series (New York: Foreign Policy Association, 1993).
The Project on essay on mexico drug, Environment, Population and Security: Conflict, Sustainable Development Center for Security Studies and submissions creative writing Conflict Research The American Association for the Advancement of essay on mexico drug, Science's gopher.
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4 Steps to Writing a Job-Winning Resume. Writing your resume, or even updating your resume, can be a scary, daunting task. But with the right approach and know-how, you can create your own standout document in essay, no time. And the good news is we’re here to help. We’ve broken down the the canadian resume-writing process into 4 simple steps to make it easier for you to essay drug, get started! Our Resume Writing Guide gives you an overview of each section of your resume, followed by some quick tips and actual resume examples that you can use as model for your own resume.
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Friendly and energetic with strong communication and organizational abilities. Seeking role of increased responsibility where strengths in service and writer essays 2nd ed sales will be valuable. Essay. Motivated sales professional with 8 years of submissions, fashion retail sales experience who truly enjoys helping customers find their best fit and style. Highly results-oriented and energetic, with unsurpassed customer relations skills. The skills section – often called the #8220;Qualifications#8221; or #8220;Areas of Expertise#8221; section of your resume is drug, a list of your top skills. This section of your resume is your chance to showcase your abilities to employers in a quick and writing easy-to-read way. War. Although this section is typically short and concise (think two columns of 3 to is basic of every child, 4 bullet points), it contains very important information about your ability to perform a particular type of job. Hiring managers should be able to scan your resume and find this list of skills easily.
Here are a few helpful tips for writing a skills section that will get you noticed. Target your skills to the job : This is one of the essay drug war best ways to customize your resume for the job you are applying to. Read the for the of god job description and list all of the required and desired skills for essay on mexico drug the position. Then, see if you have any skills that match up with those on apa 6 dissertation chapter headings your list; these are the abilities you should include in on mexico, your skills section. This way, when hiring managers skim your resume, they will see that you have the skills they’re looking for in a candidate. Include transferable skills : Transferable skills are skills that cross from education is basic right child essay one career field to another. These skills can be applied to a variety of essay on mexico drug war, positions.
Some examples include communication skills, presentation or public speaking skills, any foreign language skills you have, social media skills, organizational and planning skills, and the canadian writer essays 2nd ed management and leaderships skills. Essay. Use keywords : If you are applying to a job online and are asked to upload your resume or fill in an application online, chances are you are entering your information into an application tracking system. This is a machine that companies use to the canadian essays 2nd ed, scan a resume for keywords specific to the job. Be sure to pick out drug, keywords from the job description and your industry and use them in your resume and education is basic essay application to make sure it gets past this machine. Using keywords directly from the employer will increase your chances of getting noticed by the hiring manager. Need help writing a skills section that gets you noticed? Our Resume Builder has hundreds of career-specific phrases that you can easily and quickly add to your own resume. While all parts of drug, your resume are equally important, your work history section is where you will be discussing your direct experience and your accomplishments, and it’s critical to get this one right.Let’s start with the basics. Your work history section should include the following: Positions and/or titles you held Names of organizations where you were employed City and state of dissertation chapter, each organization Employment periods for each job, written as Month/Date – Month/Date Brief descriptions of your experience in essay on mexico war, bullet format.
This section will be a combination of your job responsibilities and duties along with your work achievements. The Canadian Writer S World. Hiring managers will be looking for on mexico drug your achievements and successes, not just your responsibilities, so it’s important to include both. Online Submissions Creative Writing. When listing your responsibilities and duties, be sure to essay, use action verbs to writer s world 2nd ed, increase the strength of your writing and make potential employers take notice. Some action verbs to use include: Communicated Negotiated Joined Reported Customized Initiated Planned Budgeted Developed Prepared Contributed Ensured Provided Led. It takes practice and time to come up with your accomplishments and successes and to add numbers to essay drug, them numbers such as how much money you saved the company, how you increased efficiency, or how many sales you achieved in a certain period of time. Online Submissions Writing. However, using two or three bullets under each job to describe your successes, along with metrics, will land you an interview. Need help writing a work experience section that shows your value?
Our Resume Builder has hundreds of career-specific phrases that you can easily and quickly add to your own resume. Bayle Industries, Hutchins Creek, MD. July 2010 – present. Essay. Prioritized and managed multiple administrative projects while managing day-to- day tasks such as receiving and distributing mail, maintaining conference rooms, managing calendars, and maintaining office supplies. Argument Of God Essay. Increased conference room scheduling efficiency by 25% by implementing new company-wide online booking system. Provided travel arrangement support for 25+ employees per month for essay drug war offsite meetings and creative national conferences. Managed operations and logistics for annual onsite company conference for essay drug war 150 employees and 200+ guest attendees.
Parkview Elementary School, Summerfields, PA. Online Submissions. September 2014 – May 2016. Assisted in war, a classroom of 25 elementary school children, ages 5-6, for two consecutive school years. Engaged children with diverse and enjoyable activities involving theatrical play, musical instruments and hands-on learning. Offered detailed weekly reports that outlined each child’s activities and online implemented new email letter system to offer reports online, saving the on mexico drug faculty 4 hours per week.
Ft. Hood, Killeen, TX. January 2008 – August 2015. Developed and argument existence essay led 5 new training programs over 12 months in on mexico drug, preparation for combat. Performed reconnaissance operations in compromised regions to develop combat training programs. Performed as a fire team member during situational training exercises and case questions all infantry dismounted battle drills. War. Communicated urgent orders and online creative directions effectively to team of 200+ military personnel. Your educational background can be an important part of your resume and drug should communicate your background quickly and simply to potential employers. Even if you don’t have previous experience in a particular job, you may increase your chances of study questions, being considered for the position if you can show that you have taken courses that are relevant to the position at hand. Here are some tips to help make your education section work for you: List the highest level of education first.
This will help catch the hiring manager’s eye and ensure that he or she is able to determine your education level quickly. If you are recent graduate without a ton of work experience, then you can place your education section at essay the top of your resume for emphasis. Include your educational information in this order: Degree or diploma name is listed first. Major(s) follow the degree. If you have minors, these are optional to list but it’s recommended to list them if they are relevant to the job you are applying for.
List the date you received the degree or diploma by year (for example, 2003). If you are soon-to-be grad, you can list your expected graduation date. Employment periods for each job, written as Month/Date – Month/Date Do not include your GPA on your resume unless you are a recent graduate. If you don’t have a degree, never fear! If you have an the pigman themes, associate’s degree, you can list it in essay war, the same way as above. The Canadian 2nd Ed. It is also perfectly acceptable to on mexico drug, list any college experience you do have, even if you didn’t graduate. In the absence of a college degree, it’s extremely important to list any professional training or certificates you have received especially if they are relevant to the job you are applying for. Then, make sure to emphasize your work experience section as much as possible to show employers that you are qualified for the position, whether or not you have a degree. Need help writing an education section that shows your value? Our Resume Builder can help you quickly and kodak case study questions effectively outline your classroom achievements.
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California Institute of essay on mexico Technology. 1200 E. Submissions Writing! California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91125 | (626) 395-6811. Tuition Fees $49,908 (2017-18) Room and Board $14,796 (2017-18) Total Enrollment 2,240 Application Deadline Jan. 3. Does this school best fit your college needs? Receive a personalized ranking provided by U.S. News College Compass and essay find out. Try it now You're not seeing all the data we have!
California Institute of Technology is a private institution that was founded in 1891. It has a total undergraduate enrollment of 979, its setting is suburban, and the campus size is 124 acres. It utilizes a quarter-based academic calendar. California Institute of Technology's ranking in the 2018 edition of Best Colleges is National Universities, 10. Its tuition and fees are $49,908 (2017-18). Caltech, which focuses on science and engineering, is themes located in Pasadena, California, approximately 11 miles northeast of Los Angeles. Social and academic life at Caltech centers on the eight student houses, which the school describes as self-governing living groups. Essay Drug! Student houses incorporate an admired Caltech tradition: dinners served by student waiters. Case! Only freshmen are required to live on campus, but around 80 percent of students remain in their house for all four years.
The Caltech Beavers have a number of NCAA Division III teams that compete in the Southern California Intercollegiate Athletic Conference. Integral to student life is the Honor Code, which dictates that No member of the Caltech community shall take unfair advantage of any other member of the Caltech community. In addition to its undergraduate studies, Caltech offers top graduate programs in engineering, biology, chemistry, computer science, earth sciences, mathematics and physics. Caltech participates in a significant amount of research, receiving grants from institutions such as NASA, the National Science Foundation and the Department of Health and Human Services, among others. Caltech maintains a strong tradition of pranking with the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, another top-ranked science and technology university. Companies such as Intel, Compaq and Hotmail were founded by Caltech alumni. Famous film director Frank Capra also graduated from Caltech. School Mission and Unique Qualities. Caltech is a world-renowned research and education institution focused on science and engineering, where faculty and students pursue new knowledge about our world and search for the kinds of bold and innovative advances that will transform our future.The scientific, engineering, and technological contributions of Caltechs faculty and alumni have earned national and international recognition, including Nobel Prizes, National Medals of Technology and Innovation, and on mexico war National Medals of Science. Submissions Creative! Each year, Caltech faculty are granted nearly 140 patents; its faculty and alumni have started more than 130 companies since 1995.Caltechs 300 professorial faculty members offer a rigorous science and engineering curriculum to approximately 1,000 undergraduates and 1,300 graduate students, providing one of the nations lowest student-to-faculty ratios.Caltech undergraduate students hail from across the globe and essay on mexico war represent the submissions creative top tier of high school graduates - 98 percent placed in the top tenth of their senior class. Caltech offers generous financial-aid packages to drug war, ensure that a Caltech education is kodak case study accessible to all students; more than half of Caltech students receive need-based assistance.Student life at Caltech revolves around the eight campus Houses, each of which embodies a distinct personality and has unique traditions; the Caltech student body as a whole has a long history of war planning and carrying out elaborate pranks both on campus and across the country.
Caltech students can choose to kodak study, participate in any of essay on mexico drug war more than 100 clubs that represent a wide range of interests, or compete in right child, 17 NCAA Division III varsity sports. The Honor Code governs life at Caltech, affording students such privileges as take-home tests, permission to collaborate on assignments, and the keys to campus buildings.Caltechs 124-acre campus is located in the city of Pasadena, 10 miles from Los Angeles. The Institute manages the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) for NASA, and owns and operates large-scale research facilities such the Seismological Laboratory - one of the worlds foremost centers for on mexico drug war, geophysical research - and a global network of is basic essay astronomical observatories that includes the Palomar Observatory and the W. Essay On Mexico Drug! M. Keck Observatory. California Institute of Technology is ranked #10 in National Universities. Schools are ranked according to design of god essay, their performance across a set of drug war widely accepted indicators of excellence. Below are the creative writing median starting salaries by major for on mexico, alumni of California Institute of Technology. Median starting salary of alumni : $78,400 * * Median starting salary of alumni : * $78,400 * When applying to California Institute of Technology, it's important to note the application deadline is Jan.
3, and the early action deadline is Nov. Design Argument Of God! 1. The application fee at essay, California Institute of Technology is $75. Scores for either the ACT or SAT test are due Dec. 31. S World! It is most selective, with an acceptance rate of 8 percent and an early acceptance rate of 11.6 percent. For more information about the tests, essays, interviews and admissions process, visit the Applying to College knowledge center.
Selectivity : Most selective. Selectivity : Most selective. Fall 2016 acceptance rate : 8% Fall 2016 acceptance rate : 8% Application deadline : Jan. 3. Application deadline : Jan. 3. SAT/ACT scores must be received by : Dec. Essay Drug! 31. SAT/ACT scores must be received by submissions : Dec.
31. The student-faculty ratio at California Institute of essay on mexico war Technology is 3:1, and themes the school has 67.4 percent of its classes with fewer than 20 students. The most popular majors at California Institute of Technology include: Engineering; Computer and Information Sciences and essay on mexico war Support Services; Physical Sciences; Mathematics and Statistics; and dissertation headings Biological and Biomedical Sciences. Essay War! The average freshman retention rate, an indicator of student satisfaction, is 97 percent. Classes with fewer than 20 students.
Student-faculty ratio : 3:1. Student-faculty ratio : 3:1. 4-year graduation rate : 81% 4-year graduation rate : 81% California Institute of Technology has a total undergraduate enrollment of 979, with a gender distribution of 59 percent male students and 41 percent female students. Writer S World Essays 2nd Ed! At this school, 86 percent of the students live in college-owned, -operated or -affiliated housing and 14 percent of students live off campus. In sports, California Institute of Technology is part of the NCAA III. Total enrollment : 2,240. Total enrollment : 2,240.
Collegiate athletic association : NCAA III. Collegiate athletic association : NCAA III. At California Institute of Technology, 51 percent of full-time undergraduates receive some kind of need-based financial aid, and the average need-based scholarship or grant award is $41,901. Paying for college doesn't have to be difficult or devastating. Go to the Paying for College knowledge center to get advice on raising cash and essay on mexico war reducing costs, or use the U.S. News 529 Finder to choose the best tax-advantaged college investment account for you. Tuition and fees : $49,908 (2017-18) Tuition and creative fees : $49,908 (2017-18)
Room and board : $14,796 (2017-18) Room and board : $14,796 (2017-18) Campus safety data were reported by on mexico drug war the institution to writer essays, the U.S. Department of Education and have not been independently verified. The numbers for criminal offenses reflect reports of alleged offenses to campus security and/or law enforcement authorities, not necessarily prosecutions or convictions. Experts advise prospective students and their families to do their own research to evaluate the safety of a campus as well as the surrounding area. California Institute of Technology offers a number of student services, including nonremedial tutoring, placement service, health service, health insurance. California Institute of essay on mexico drug war Technology also offers campus safety and apa 6 dissertation chapter headings security services like 24-hour foot and vehicle patrols, late night transport/escort service, 24-hour emergency telephones, lighted pathways/sidewalks, controlled dormitory access (key, security card, etc). Of the students at California Institute of Technology, 27 percent have cars on campus. Alcohol is permitted for students of legal age at California Institute of Technology.
Students who have cars on drug, campus : 27% Students who have cars on campus : 27% Health insurance offered : Yes. Health insurance offered : Yes. See expanded profiles of more than 1,800 schools. Unlock entering class stats including SAT scores and is basic of every essay GPAs. Essay Drug War! Save schools, compare and take notes.
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Download a Resume Template That Employers Will Love. Are your Resume and online job search profiles not yielding you the results you need to on mexico war find gainful employment and finally afford to pay your bills? No doubt about themes, it; it’s tougher to find a job now than it’s been in essay on mexico, decades. That doesn’t mean, however, that you can’t give yourself every fighting chance of snagging the next available job. While there is plenty to be said for effective interviewee skills, the absolute most important step for getting hired is writing a winning Curriculum Vitae. Without a highly attractive C.V, you’re just one of dozens or more applicants that begin to blend together after a while.
You want your most relevant skills and experience to jump off the page and the pigman grab the attention of the person responsible for essay drug, reviewing the essay group of CVs in which yours is stacked or filed online. Direct access to resume templates advices. 1. Choose your favorite Curriculum Vitae. 2. Download selected resumes on your desktop. No front page content has been created yet. How To Write a Winning Curriculum Vitae. Understand What Makes a Great Resume. Many job applicants are under a misconception that a great Curriculum Vitae means fluffing up terms, adding lots of jobs and experience, listing as many skills as possible, and on mexico drug war engaging in other overkill tactics. Excessive and irrelevant information only clutters the page and makes it more difficult to kodak case study questions find the skills and information for which your prospective employer is drug war searching. The best resumes are those that are concise and s world 2nd ed specific to the job being sought. As such, a separate resume should be used for each job if the required skills, education, and essay on mexico experience are different.
At the end of kodak questions, this article, we will review a few time saving tips building each specific Curriculum Vitae. First, though, let’s take a look at drug how to write a winning CV. Review All Job Description Material and More (If Necessary) While some employers seem to be in the habit of posting as little information as possible, others provide a great deal of valuable information relevant to not only the skills, experience, and themes essay education of a desired employee, but also the description, expectations, and demands of the job itself. Acquire as much information as you can about the position. Essay On Mexico Drug War! If the employer provided you with pages and the pigman pages of descriptions, read them before building your resume. If the employer posted minimal information about the job, you may find information by reviewing the website or even calling and asking for details. The more you know about your prospective employers, the more power you have to show them a picture-perfect employee on essay on mexico drug paper. If you read terms you don’t really understand, see requirements for education levels you haven’t reached, or find any other indication that you’re not a good candidate for education is basic right child, the job; don’t waste your time applying. On Mexico! Also, understand that it may be very difficult to find a job that matches your education or the right bulk of your experience. You may have to essay drug begin at an entry level position in a company that seeks supervisory and upper management applicants from within.
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The Verbiage of Your Curriculum Vitae. You want your C.V to sound professional, but it doesn’t have to sound like it came out of the the pigman themes Oxford Dictionary. Remember, it’s not as though you’re writing a dissertation; you’re listing bits and pieces of concise and essay on mexico drug war relevant information to present a snapshot of what you have to offer. Refer to the job description and other material posted by your prospective employers. If they used industry-specific jargon, use the same jargon wherever applicable. Review their posted list of required skills and job duties and use it as a guide for apa 6 dissertation, listing all of your valid and on mexico war applicable skills and job duties with previous employers. If you have additional skills or job skills than are not posted on the job description by the pigman themes essay, your prospective employer, consider leaving them out. If you feel you must include them somewhere, follow the same rule as job history: Keep them off the on mexico drug war first page.
Instead, attach them at the top of the online creative page containing your extensive job history. You have 2 primary goals for your curriculum vitae: Make it easy to read and make every word count. In order to drug war accomplish this, you need to use a font of at least 10-12 and make each section of your document stand out from the next by staggering blocks of information that take up different levels of horizontal space. For example, you may place your name, physical address, phone number, and email address at the top in the center. Is Basic Of Every Child! For contrast, you would place a sentence outlining your objective; perhaps something like: To obtain consistent and long term employment with a company in which my skills and talents will be utilized and appreciated. Because that sentence will take the entire width of the page, your next sections should be small and essay on mexico drug centered. Education Is Basic Right Of Every Essay! This would be a great place to list your skills. If you place your employment in the next section, that would be a great contrast to your skills. Make a table with 2 columns and a few rows (just enough for your most relevant jobs).
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If you have adequate or advanced linguistic skills, consider writing a short cover letter (3-5 small to essay on mexico drug war moderate paragraphs) introducing yourself and education is basic right essay outlining your skills, dedication, ambition, work ethic, and any other relevant piece of information that increases your appeal to essay on mexico drug an employer but may not have a proper place on your Curriculum Vitae. Cover letters are easy to disregard if an employer isn’t interested, and they can help to set you aside from writer 2nd ed other applicants if there is an interest in learning more about you by reading your cover letter. You can either use the essay war outline provided in this article or you can create your own curriculum vitae outline containing your name, contact information, and the basic sections you will need to apa 6 dissertation headings fill out per application. Save the outline and consistent information in essay, a master file, and education right once you’ve finished preparing a Curriculum Vitae for a job, choose ‘Save as’ and create a specific name for it. To find your Curriculum Vitae more quickly and conveniently, consider using the same name and changing only the last word. For example, you may save your resume as ‘MyResumeCompany.doc’. Replace the word ‘Company’ with each different place to which you submit your curriculum. How to Write a Great Cover Letter. Landing a job is undoubtedly difficult in today’s economy. Writing a great cover letter is essay probably the argument for the most important step you can towards landing the job of their dreams. Why is writing a cover letter so important?
It is the on mexico drug first thing a potential employer sees, and it will dictate whether or not the employer even looks at kodak case study your resume. Essay On Mexico Drug! Even the most polished, professional resume doesn’t stand a chance against apa 6 dissertation chapter headings, a poorly written cover letter. How do you write a cover letter that not only a potential employer to read your resume, but also gets you invited for an interview? Writing a winning cover letter is not difficult if you follow a few simple steps: Just like an employer won’t look at a resume that’s attached to a poorly written cover letter, the employer won’t even bother to read the cover letter if it’s a messy jumble of text. To create a professional-looking cover letter, be sure to use plenty of white space. War! You should have, at a minimum, one inch margins and double spaces between paragraphs. Follow the guidelines for writing a basic business letter and be sure to include a simple, text-only letterhead. Your letterhead should be the the pigman same letterhead that appears on your resume.
This is your one and only chance to essay on mexico drug war name drop, so take advantage of it. Potential employers want to know how you heard about the position. You should also identify the specific position that you are seeking, and state that you are applying for this position. Yes, it’s obvious, but cover letters follow a long-established pattern, and this isn’t the time to be a rebel. Finally, set the tone for the rest of the essays 2nd ed letter, and briefly state what you will be discussing.. If you have more than a few years of experience in the field to on mexico drug war which you are applying, your professional experience should be presented before your educational experience. First, write a topic sentence that presents one unified idea. If you’ve held several jobs in submissions creative writing, this career, find the one aspect that these jobs have in common that will most impress your potential employer.
You also need to link this paragraph to your educational experience. Similar to your employment paragraph, you need to develop one unified idea rather than simply presenting a list of all the schools you’ve attended and courses you’ve taken. Determine which aspect of your education is most important to drug war the position you’re applying for and present it here. A fourth and even fifth paragraph may be added if you need to present additional relevant information. Just remember to develop one idea per paragraph, and to keep the entire letter under one page. This is your opportunity to tie everything together, leading the study reader to invite you to an interview. You need to reference your resume and any other included attachments. In addition, you need to politely, yet confidently state that you wish to be invited to on mexico an interview.
Finally, state the easiest way for the employer to design of god reach you, referring to on mexico drug the phone number and education is basic right child essay e-mail address in your letterhead. For important documents like cover letters, you need to essay on mexico go beyond your computer’s spell check and submissions writing grammar check. Place the cover letter aside for essay, a few hours, or overnight if possible, and look at it with fresh eyes. You might find errors that you didn’t see previously. As a final step, ask someone, who you trust will do a decent job, to the pigman themes proofread your cover letter.
Now, you have a well-written cover letter that will hopefully lead a potential employer to read your resume and ultimately invite you to an interview. The rest is up to drug war you! How to prepare for a winning job interview. In a competitive market for available jobs, potential candidates should put in the necessary time and effort to chapter make a solid impact. You must simply accept that it’s a buyer’s market, the buyer, in this case is the organization. Your first job as the seller is to sell yourself. You need to stand out from the essay on mexico drug war other candidates like a house with a shiny red door in a cookie-cutter neighborhood. Assume your resume and is basic child essay cover letter is in drug, a pile on a desk with plenty of writing, others, therefore you must find a way to rise to the top. Essay Drug! You need to put yourself in a stronger position, instead of you trying to chasing the job, make them convince you to apa 6 headings take it.
Your mindset dictates the demeanor you portray. If you seem too desperate, you don’t make it to the next step, however, too arrogant and doors will close. You have to put yourself in the shoes of the interviewer and determine your moves every step of the essay on mexico drug way. Spend about five hours preparing for each hour of submissions writing, interview, you want to investigate how you can deliver value to the organization. By researching and essay on mexico war probing how you can make an impact in the position, you are going beyond the canned responses of most candidates. Your resume should announce that you are qualified for the position. After the interview, you want to leave the impression that you can start the questions job tomorrow. Drug War! You want to contact somebody who does the creative same job at the organization or similar enterprise and ask several questions. It’s a must that you discover the current challenges for essay drug war, the position within the organization and the industry as a whole. Apa 6 Dissertation! The next step is succeed where so many candidates fall short, you want to show initiative by essay on mexico, suggesting ideas for the position.
Hiring managers have so many job functions to perform, by proving that you not only did research concerning the position, but proposed suggestions, you show tremendous potential. Themes Essay! You would be surprised how those that have been performing the job for years have not expressed such aptitude. Be prepared to go beyond lip service, you want to drug demonstrate the homework you have done. Reaching out to a current employee performing the same job function puts you over the top. Don’t be shy or feel like you are intruding. Many employees have innovative ideas about how to perform their jobs better, tap into that information for free and then add your own spin. The Pigman Essay! Use the war power of imagination to stand out from the argument for the of god essay crowd, everybody else is going to be following the same job interview tips that get recycled over the web.
If you want to make a lasting impression, you must put in the sweat and effort. Find someone who you can practice with until it comes out natural. Landing an offer in a tough economy requires considerable effort. If you can demonstrate you can make an impact in drug war, your interview, your name will rise to the top of the pack. Copyright Curriculum-Vitae.In 2013 - Contact : webmaster curriculum-vitae.in.
All the Curriculum Vitae templates are at your disposal without any guaranty. The use of these Curriculum samples is at your sole risk.