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The pigman themes essay

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Building the the pigman themes Boeing 787 Case Study essay. The Boeing Company’s Key Developments and Management Strategies. Oxford Thesis Binding Holywell. The Boeing Company is themes headquartered in Chicago since 2001 and has four business segments: Commercial Airplanes, Missile Aircraft and Missile Systems, Space and Communication, and Phantom Works (“Boeing in Brief”, 2012). On Voting Rights Act Of. For the present day, the company employs more than 170,000 people across the USA and in 70 other countries (“Boeing in Brief”, 2012). The company was forced to merge into bigger operations and enter into coproduction with other entities around the world, owing to the cost reduction and avoidance of the spread of the commercial and economic risks. Japan is the main country cooperator with the Boeing Company (Tung, 2001). Throughout its history, the company was challenged with the huge competition and some of the competitors latter became its alliances, such as McDonnell and Douglas, Rockwell International, and North American Aviation (Yenne, 2005). The Boeing Company’s history can be split on the two main periods, which are piston era and jet era (Pelletier, 2010).

During the war years, the Boeing Company focused on building military airplanes and was the first to introduce mail delivery by themes essay, air (Pelletier, 2010). Following methods were used in the course of research: a) data collection, which helped to describe the of global warming major historical events, which shaped the company; b) analysis, which helped to essay, explain negative and positive outcomes of the company’s taken decisions; c) comparison, which helped to define the negative and positive sides of the results; d) evaluation, which helped to determine effective economic solutions to the existing problems. Of Global Warming. Among the biggest technological and competition’s challenges, which the Boeing Company faced, were its major losses in 1930s, 1990s and the pigman 2000s and employees’ strikes (Pelletier, 2010). In order to essays act of, shorten production time and eliminate economical risks in building 787 the Boeing Company merged into outsourcing management (Norris Wagner, 2009). However, after having been stood up by the pigman themes, the foreign suppliers, the Boeing’s employees had to on voting 1965, fix received gaps in the constructional materials, which caused delivery delays and further losses (Norris Wagner, 2009). Moreover, the company did not want to lay off the development and the pigman certification of the heart tale 787 program or any other aircraft productions that were currently implemented (Turim Gates, 2009). Therefore, the following question should be answered on the grounds of chronological report: a) Do the financial benefits of outsourcing overweight the management risks that the company had already experienced? b) How can the company prevent and solve management problems? c) How should company respond to the criticisms of the pigman essay, exporting American job overseas by outsourcing greater percentage of you know what to write your essay, its work? The Company’s initial steps and current technological developments were studied to answer abovementioned questions. Main strategies of the manufacturing operations, marketing activities for effective promotion are to be emphasized regarding the research questions. From the themes First Single-Engine Airplane to the Greatest Numbers of Jets. In 1916, a timber businessman William Edward Boeing together with a naval lieutenant Conrad G. Westervelt launched the Pacific Aero Company and built his first plane the BW (Pelletier, 2010).

In 1917, the company was renamed as the Boeing Airplane Company, and its starting capital was $ 100,000. 998 of the 1000 shares belonged to Boeing (Pelletier, 2010). Despite of the 28 hired people’s efforts, BW did not sale, which made Boeing use his personal fortune to pay the heart statement tell wages (Pelletier, 2010). But the European zone demand for the military, supporting equipment, the first Air Show of the Cs models, and contract with the Army to rebuild and modernize 354 British and Havilland DH-4S helped Boeing to avoid shutdown and sustained the company during early 1920s (Pelletier, 2010). Boeing was the first to the pigman essay, get a contract with the US Postal Department to essays on causes, carry mail at a distance of 1,918 miles, and this helped to the pigman themes essay, create a new root between Chicago and San Francisco (Pelletier, 2010).

Therefore, in thesis, 1928 was remarked by the creation of the the pigman themes Boeing Airplane Transport Company, incorporating both the airplane manufacturing and commercial transport (Yenne, 2005). Boeing started constructing triple-engine 80 models, because of the growing demand to how do you know to write college on, carry passengers on the mail planes. Front part of the the pigman fuselage was initially constructed from wood and could carry 450kg (Yenne, 2005). The success of the Pratt Whitney Wasps used in those 12 seated partly-metal, partly-wood biplane was a key point of the new group formation under the name of the United Aircraft and Transportation Corporation (UATC) in to write college essay on, 1929 (Pelletier, 2010). Nevertheless of the biggest order in civil aviation at a total coast of $ 4,000,000 to the pigman themes, construct twin-engine monoplane for ten passengers, there came the first statistics of the airplane crushes (Pelletier, 2010). UATC split into three parts due to the Roosevelt’s regulation to statement, allow the postal service for essay the private firms under certain conditions (Yenne, 2005). Boeing was left with $ 582,000, from which the company had to pay salaries and other costs and make downsizing to 700 employees (Pelletier, 2010). Although Boeing had shortages and retired from the business, the company had built a total number of 1,615 aircrafts, the number that was 300 more comparing to the previous year (Pelletier, 2010). Throughout the years of the oxford holywell World War II and Early Cold American War, the Boeing Company responded to the need for bombers and the pigman gained unique financial strength (Kinkerdall, 2007). Improvements to the aircraft equipment included electrical systems, self sealing tanks, engine covers cooled by how do you know what essay, shutters of themes essay, adjustable temperature (Pelletier, 2010). The production range was broadened with the manufacturing of the turbine models helicopters and diversified with experimental boats Aqua-Jet and Little Squirt in essays on causes warming, the early 1960s (Pelletier, 2010).

The growth of the 700 family - the tailless, supersonic aircrafts, which were capable of flying at high subsonic speeds, came between 1970 and 1990 (Yenne, 2005). Meanwhile, the the pigman themes company introduced different shuttle designs implemented in the 90-meter-long craft fanjets and rocket engines, which composed boosters (Pelletier, 2010). The Boeing Company gained first position in the aeronautical industry after primarily studies in the International Space Station (Pelletier, 2010). Therefore, the total turnover reached 75% (Yenne, 2005). Thesis Biodiversity. The company became the Boeing Commercial Airplane Group in 1996 with the the pigman essay number of employees of 87,000 people (Pelletier, 2010). Due to economic growth of the Asia-Pacific region, the Boeing Company delivered 375 jetliners comparing with its competitor Airbus, which number was 182 (Tung, 2001). Therefore, the Boeing Company invented the concept of the Sonic Cruiser, code-named “Glacier”, which could fly with the 98% of the compare contrast speed of the pigman essay, sound to shorten travel times (Turner, 2011). From “Glacier” to 7E7 and than 787 Program. Thesis Binding Holywell. In 1991, United Airlines challenged the Boeing Company to come up with a transpacific aircraft with 600 or 700 seats (Norris Wagner, 2009). New Large Airplane project was initiated with studying single-deckers and double-deckers in Factoria (Norris Wagner, 2009). 747 stretch designs were analyzed with the hundred alternative evaluations (Pelletier, 2010).

Joint studies involved very large commercial transition, but the company quit in 1995 (Norris Wagner, 2009). During that year, the Boeing Company tried to combine 777 technology and 747 baselines into the project (Norris Wagner, 2009). The adoption of 777 style features forced the the pigman themes Boeing Company to increase costs to about $ 7 billion (Turner, 2011). Lower-power engines were required as composite materials. They weighed less and that meant further reduction of the overall aircraft size and landing gear (Norris Wagner, 2009). Moreover, fuel consumption per passenger was 15-20% less than in conventional aircrafts of the same size (Pelletier, 2010). Heart Tell Thesis. In 1996, Boeing was completing certification of the the pigman essay 737 family and how do what to write your planning to increase its production rates by twenty four airplanes in two years time (Norris Wagner, 2009). But in 1997 company’s manufacturing melt down forced it to write the biggest charge in essay, its history of thesis, $ 2,6 billion and downsize up to twelve employees by the end of the next year (Turner, 2011).

However, the Boeing’s engineer Stuart Buchan encouraged internal systems’ suppliers to come with their own budget and themes essay twelve engineers of the Japanese Mitsubishi were included into the team (Norris Wagner, 2009). A significant company’s change during that period of 1997 came with the merges of four the most important aerospace companies to the Boeing Company, namely McDonnell, Douglas, North American Aviation, and Rockwell International (Yenne, 2005). In February 2000, the Boeing Company was hit by strike, because negotiations with the Society of Professional Engineering Employees in of global, Aerospace broke down (Norris Wagner, 2009). This event in the Boeing’s history is called as one of the crucial crisis (Turim Gates, 2009). Therefore, company started the ninety-day study after the 787 program’s presentation, which described structural organization on the pigman themes essay the theoretical benefits of composite wings (Yenne, 2005).

This study was focused on the main projects, which were code-named after the U.S. national parks: a) Project Yellowstone, which described the possibilities of the essays on causes warming 85% speed of flight close to the speed of sound; b) High-speed design Glacier and c) Blended-wing body design inherited with the the pigman themes McDonnell merger Project Redwood (Norris Wagner, 2009). The latter project emphasized the main focus on building essentially flying wing without conventional fuselage. It was shut down because of the lack of compare contrast essay words, financing (Yenne, 2005). The $ 4 billion plan for the project “Glacier” included the design and construction of a larger wing with 7% more area and 8% bigger span (Norris Wagner, 2009). “Glacier” project was filled for application on the pigman essay January 2001 and accompanied sketch of the aircraft’s description contained detailed information of the type of wings and level of the cruise speeds (Norris Wagner, 2009). The project became known as the “Sonic Cruiser” (Yenne, 2005). In June 2001, the compare contrast words Boeing Company brought 1, 8 meters long simulation to the Paris Air Show (Turner, 2001). The planned aircraft was meant to be built largely of composite materials with its wing placed farther back on the fuselage (Turner, 2001). The Boeing Company’s vice chairmen described the project as not environmentally friendly and British media published these remarks at the first place (Norris Wagner, 2009). Moreover, the seriousness of the possible environment impact was dismissed due to the constructional inaccuracies. However, Japan Aircraft Industries rejected an offer from the pigman Airbus and joined the Boeing Company on a deal of the centered composite technology approach (Norris Wagner, 2009). This action is called the major key in the Boeing’s development (Turim Gates, 2009).

The future of commercial aviation radically changed on essays on voting rights act of September 11, 2001. In December 2002, after major delays in production and its reduction to 50%, the essay Boeing Commercial Airlines’ then president and CEO Alan Mulally announced that company stopped building Sonic Cruiser (Turner, 2011). Heart Thesis. Tough business environment dedicated the rules, and Boeing stated that it losses comprised $ 10 billion and 20% drop of revenue (Norris Wagner, 2009). However, the company did not fulfill its promise and continued building of the Sonic Cruiser, but under the different name (Pelletier, 2010) In 2003, civil aviation orders remained on the pigman themes essay the same level and delivery of 281 aircrafts showed the worst results, since 1993 (Pelletier, 2010). The workforce was 157, 000 compared to the 231, 000 five years previously (Yenne, 2005). However, as the 2003 began Boeing changed the Super Efficient designation of biodiversity, 7E7, two initial versions of which were focused on the finalist’s heritage of the Sonic Cruiser (Norris Wagner, 2009). 7E7 models were filled for the new types of certificates and became the first new Boeing model since 777 (Norris Wagner, 2009). Never seen before look of the 7E7 model was reinforced by the swept flight deck windows, integrally blended winglets, and narrow-cord previously outlined fin (Norris Wagner, 2009).

The name for the project was given after fan-jet engines developed by General Electric, Pratt Whitney, and Rolls-Royce (Pelletier, 2010). On December 2003, the board gave “go-ahead” for the plane (Yenne, 2005). And after the first order, 50 planes came in April 2004 from All Nippon Airways (ANA), the plane received the name: the 787 Dreamliner (Pelletier, 2010). The Pigman Themes. The design for the 787 turned to be highly complex due to the widespread use of the essay transition composite materials (50% of the total weight) and 3D digital model accessibility by the sub-contractors involved in the program (Pelletier, 2010). On April 2005, the the pigman themes essay Boeing Company announced that it has 237 options and firm orders (Yenne, 2005).

The same time the Boeing Company won orders from Air Canada and tell thesis Air India (Turim Gates, 2009). Only vertical fin was manufactured by the Puget Sound near Tacoma, while pre-installing of essay, all wiring and deducting were required from the Boeing’s partners (Turim Gates, 2009). On July 2007, the biodiversity first assembled 787 was shown to the 15,000 employees and customers at Everett (Turim Gates, 2009). However, it was not known that the structure was a hollow shell and wing slats were painted wood (Turim Gates, 2009). In 2008, the Boeing’s employees went on the pigman themes essay strike, because of the encountered errors in the aircraft sections delivered by the different suppliers (Pelletier, 2010). No-strike agreement was negotiated between the how do to write college on Boeing Company and the Mechanics Union, ensuring that a second 787 final-assembly line will go to Everett instead of Charleston (Gates, 2009). The Pigman Essay. However, unsettled issues ended up in failure, and Boeing announced Charleston as the final assembly plant (Turim Gates, 2009). Biodiversity. On November 2009, the wing-body joint fix was completed, and the wing stress test was repeated in the Charleston 750,000 square-foot complex (Turim Gates, 2009). The airplane was given the green light to fly (Turim Gates, 2009). Total of the pigman themes, six planes were included into the flight-test program to statement tale thesis, obtain certificate (“Building the Dream: Boeing 787”).

After the aircraft introduction, the Boeing’s sales showed growth to a total 1,423 orders for the year, including 346 for the 787 models (Turim Gates, 2009). In 2012, the Government approved a compensation agreement between the plane maker and the state-owned carrier for delivery delays (Agreement Clears Way, 2012). More than three years of delivery delays made Air India ask for $ 840, 000 million of compensation (Agreement Clears Way, 2012). Air India will begin receiving 27 ordered 787s (Agreement Clears Way, 2012). On July 2012, the Boeing Company reported net income of $ 967 million (Boukamp, 2012). Revenue jumped to 21% and the pigman themes reached $ 20 billion comparing with the $ 16, 54 billion a year ago (Boukamp, 2012). All those incomes are the how do to write your college on results of the the pigman themes essay effective implementation of the marketing activities and management concepts. Heart Statement Tell. The Boeing Company uses sufficient promotional tools to attract great numbers of customers. Air Shows and Boeing Integration Centers as the Best Promotion Steps. 15,000 of aerospace enthusiasts are engaged in a production launch and millions in a public air shows, promoted by the Boeing Company (Calder, 2012). The Company elaborates immersive simulations for pilot training and 3D complexes as a part of advanced manufacturing to develop the pre-air show environments (Calder, 2012).

Multimedia used in mini-customer exhibits became a key element in the Boeing Company’s marketing and business development efforts (Paul Kapoor, 2008). These efforts included building of themes essay, Boeing Integration Centers (BICs) for the defense groups’ customers, the Customer Experience Center (CEC) and Dreamliner Gallery for its commercial airline customers (Calder, 2012). When military orders reached 97% of the company’s production, it integrated system-to-system approach of battle planning exhibits to heart statement tell, demonstrate the network of enabled operations through the created space (Calder, 2012). 20,000 visitors attended these centers, which contain four modeling labs with large screens and theater-style seating (Paul Kappor, 2008). Essay. High-ceilinged solution studio facilitates communication between customers and sales/marketing team (Calder, 2012). How Do What Your College On. Aircraft’s simulated models with the flat screens behind them are reinforced by the maps, which display all of the customer’s daily flight in action (Calder, 2012). Design marketing campaigns, corporate identity programs, and promotional materials are developed by the Airline Marketing Service Group and Commercial Airplanes (Gunter, 2005). On December 2007, Boeing’s team successfully achieved the themes essay first virtual construction of the 787using digital model (Pelletier, 2010). This virtual assembly permitted engineers to distinguish 5000 odd-elements from the different sub-contractors, which corrected when the real aircraft will be built (Pelletier, 2010).

Boeing magazine “Frontier” provides the latest information of the Boeing company projects, as well as historical outlines of thesis, its business (Pelletier, 2010). The Pigman. The Seattle Newspaper keeps all the data about the Boeing Company updated. These measures are taken in order to attract more customers and essays and effects warming partners to essay, the business. However, the Boeing Company’s total concentration on you know your essay the promotional and management steps have brought negative results on its reputation and the pigman themes essay financing (Norris Wagner, 2009). The Boeing Company’s Manufacturing Operations. Principal activities are carried out by business groups Commercial Airplanes and Integrated Defense Systems (Yenne, 2005). In 2002, the latter combined all the capabilities and compare essay transition programs of the former Military Aircraft Missile Systems Group and the Boeing Space Communications Group (Yenne, 2005). Production lines of the 700 family models (737, 747, 767 and 777) are manufactured in Everett, Renton, and themes essay Long Beach (Pelletier, 2010). Part of the Boeing Company, known as Boeing Aerospace Support, performs the actions, which are bound to reduce life-cycle costs and increase the on voting rights effectiveness of the aircraft, namely: aircraft maintenance, modification and repair, training for aircrews, and maintenance staff (Evans, 2008). “AS People System” is highly structured process, which ensures that employees, who comprise supporting teams, understand priorities and expectations, and have training, knowledge, and tools to perform their job (Evans, 2008). The supplier partners of the themes essay huge composite materials spanned the essays on causes of global warming globe. The Boeing Company assigned to 3 Japanese firms, which are Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Kawasaki Heavy Industries, and Fuji Heavy, 35% of the design and the pigman themes essay manufacturing for the latest project 787 Dreamliner (Carbaugh, 2011).

Therefore, the Boeing Company performs the final assembly only in three days time (Turner, 2011). Japanese companies in return to essays, the contract with the Boeing company secure a virtual monopoly in the pigman essay, jetliners sale to Japan (Carbaugh, 2011). Companies, which provide Boeing’s work outsourcing, are responsible for the following manufacturing of the 1965 aircraft sections. See table below: Aircraft’s parts it produces. Mid-fuselage, wing box, wing trailing edge. Rudder, vertical fin, fairing panels. Wing tip, tail cone. Inboard flap, movable trailing edge. Engine pylon, fairing main landing gear door. The Pigman Themes Essay. Main landing gear, nose landing gear.

Table 1. Countries, from which Boeing outsources its work (Carbaugh, 2011). On Voting Rights. Therefore, abovementioned table shows that only 20% of the work is being done by the pigman essay, the Boeing Company (Pelletier, 2010). Heart Statement. But it is quite true to state that the company runs into additional responsibility for the suppliers’ actions and possible delays. Chronological comparison helped to determine that the risks the company undertakes are far greater than the benefits of outsourcing (Norris Wagner, 2009). The Pigman Essay. Comparison between Boeing’s Benefits and oxford holywell Risks of Outsourcing. The Boeing’s work outsourcing has brought the following initial benefits to the pigman themes, the company: a) cost savings, because foreign suppliers decrease the time required to on causes and effects of global warming, build the essay Boeing’s jets by more than 50%. The company was never under obligation to repay its vendors whether the outcome of the program (Turner, 2011); b) implementation of wide initiatives, since the Boeing company has military production activities and other 700 family lines (Norris Wagner, 2009); c) better access to oxford binding, the new methodology and the pigman themes technology, because the company is fully focused on the marketing operations and uses high-quality multimedia assets to promote its products and services (Calder, 2012). However, the on causes and effects of global company faced the following risks due to its commitment to outsourcing management: a) loss of control, which caused the company to schedule unnecessary negotiations about the place of the the pigman themes essay following assembly implementation (Fetters-Walp, 2010); b) difficulty in bringing business together, since three thousand employees faced the challenges of you know what college essay on, fixing inaccuracies, which were failed to be done by themes, the foreign suppliers (Turim Gates, 2009); c) additional liability was endangered owing to the suppliers’ delivery delays when 47 customers worldwide have ordered 683 airplanes at the cost of $ 110, 000 billion (Bair, 2007). Negative outcomes caused the employee’s strikes during the thesis most critical crisis after September the the pigman themes 11 th and at the most important period in 2008 just before long-expected certification of the 787 line (Turim Gates, 2009).

Moreover, the how do you know what your on company’s liability for Air India for more than three years of the pigman themes essay, delivery imposed compensation approval by the Government (Agreement Clears Way, 2012). Therefore, the risks that the Boeing Company undertakes with outsourcing overweight the advantages of the traditional management concepts. Measures to Prevent and Solve the Boeing Company’s Management and Financial Problems. The Boeing Company developed the holywell traditional supply chain, where more than two parties are linked by the flow of essay, manufactured products (Carbaugh, 2011). Due to outsourcing the U.S. workers are forced to holywell, compete with foreign workers, although foreign workers cannot afford to be paid less because of their lower cost of living (Hira R. Hira A., 2008). Outsourcing was the main cause for the Boeing Company’s highest charge in the history of $ 2, 6 billion after the twelve thousand of the skilled employees were downsized (Norris Wagner, 2009). Due to this traditional prospective the company encountered particular problem areas emphasized by the management indicators and which should be mitigated in the following order. See the Table 2 below. Essay. Lack of rights, effective communication (some components were not installed into the fuselage by the Italian supplier and instructions had only Italian context (Turim Gates, 2009)) Delays in transportation of manufactured products (like in the pigman themes essay, cases with Air India and All Nippon Airways (Agreement Clears Way, 2012)) Employment of the additional sufficiently qualified staff would eliminate the need to move geographically closer to the supplier.

Defects in production (like in the case when 0,3 inch gap was found at the joint between the nose and cockpit section and thesis fuselage section, manufactured by the United Kingdom and Japan respectively (Turim Gates, 2009)) Corrective actions required (Boeing employees had to themes, disconnect and reconnect those parts, loosing precious time (Norris Wagner, 2009) ) Adapt continuous improvement (since the Boeing company is not under financial responsibility of repayment to and effects of global warming, its suppliers it should elaborate effective frame work with the the pigman essay vendors to raise their ethical and you know what your college on financial awareness) Internally dispersed communication structures (manufacturing conditions and errors caused employees strike (Pelletier, 2010)) Internal communication difficulties (negotiations being held to move manufacturing area from Charleston to Everett (Turim Gates, 2009)) Consolidate staff into single communication department (arrangement of the sufficient square footage plant will be sufficient for productive and effective work) Various suppliers for the pigman themes essay the single supply parts ( all of the suppliers manufacture movable and immovable parts of the wing (Carbaugh, 2011) ) Lack of the oxford binding holywell quality efficiency from suppliers’ sides (manufacturing defects, which Boeing employees should fix) Same suppliers should supply various parts ( each supplier should be responsible for its manufacturing action process ) Table 2. Problems, which occur in the Boeing’s and suppliers’ chain reactions and measures to the pigman, prevent them (Carbaugh, 2011). Abovementioned measures can improve the Boeing Company’s financial and economic conditions, because they are sufficiently integrated and reproduce manufacturing circle inside their operations particularities. To address outsourcing criticism, the Boeing Company can impose contract termination on the supplier’s service quality failure; increase the essays on voting rights 1965 incentives for greater service quality; increase the share for financial risks (Hira R. Hira A., 2008). Moreover, improving of the essay productivity should be a part of cost reduction program and tale thesis the contract should include conditional sections for the better measuring results (Hira R. Hira A., 2008). Fundamental Points in the Boeing Company’s Development. For over the century of its existence, the Boeing Company has grown into a major airline corporation, which provides aircrafts’ manufacturing and commercial transportation. The Pigman Themes Essay. It was the first company to gain the priority of delivering mail by air, as well as the heart statement thesis leader of the military jets’ production. Themes Essay. Moreover, it gained the first position owing to the primary studies in essays on causes and effects of global, the Aerospace Industry. The Pigman Themes Essay. Technologies development and market demand challenged the company to use multimedia tools in how do, the simulated training labs and galleries, which perspective was to reinforce the the pigman themes effectiveness of the public air shows.

The Boeing Company launched the 787 project under the code name “Glacier” in how do to write your college essay, order to meet demand of the Asia-Pacific’s region growth. To overrun Airbus in their long-lasting competition the Boeing Company went into outsourcing management. This action was taken due to the merges of the themes most important aerospace companies into the Boeing Corporation. The 787 program was designated to provide the possibility for the aircraft to oxford binding, fly as far as 8,500 miles without refueling. These conditions were possible if the aircraft’s weight could be reduced on 20% by the pigman essay, equipment of the composite materials. Essays Rights Act Of 1965. Integration of 747, 737 and themes essay 777 sketch designs in the 787’s construction required funds increasing on oxford thesis 7%. To validate the project effectiveness, the company went through implementing different designs specification of the same program under the different names, namely project “Glasier”, 7E7 program and 787 Dreamliner. The Pigman Themes Essay. In the course of 787 Dreamliner creation, the Boeing Company faced critical crisis of employees’ strikes and budget melt downs. Moreover, outsourcing management caused financial and economic hazards for the company, such as delivery delays to the potential customers due to the manufacturing inaccuracies, which had to be fixed in 1965, the shortest periods. In order to address its outsourcing problems the company should make amendments into the manufacturing process.

Additional financial responsibility should be imposed on the vendors in the pigman essay, order to eliminate the effects of the financial and and effects economic risks.

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The Pigman Theme Essay Research Paper Life

Global Business Cultural Analysis: China. China Terry Lushbaugh BUSI 604 International Business Liberty University Abstract The following examines the nation of China and its trade relations with the world, particularly the United States. The focus is primarily on China’s culture and how it impacts business dealings with other countries. Areas examined include: Religion, Management Philosophy, and Business Etiquette. Also discussed is China’s growing status as a world super power and how that has impacted the the pigman essay, global business landscape. We will write a custom essay sample. on Global Business Cultural Analysis: China or any similar. topic specifically for you. Likewise, various trading partners are examined and oxford binding holywell, the effects of themes essay doing business with China, specifically for the United States. Points of concern for the United States are things such as the outsourcing of jobs and domestic unemployment.

China has become the how do you know what your essay, 2nd largest trading partner for the United States. The majority of that trade is in Imports of Chinese goods to the US. With all of the tension between the two nations, past and present, it is a relationship that is extremely volatile in nature. The Pigman! Global Business Cultural Analysis: China. A nation’s culture has a profound impact on heart tale tell, how that nation does business globally. An intricate segment of any nation’s culture is themes its religious beliefs. Business etiquette, managerial philosophy, and general work attitudes all play a role in how a nation does business. When all of those elements in thesis biodiversity, the nation of the pigman China collide with other nations in the global business landscape, what is the on causes, outcome?

Four key questions will be addressed regarding China and essay, how these elements play a role in business endeavors: what are the major elements and and effects of global warming, dimensions of culture in this region? How are these elements and dimensions integrated by the pigman locals conducting business in the nation? How do both of the above items (elements and dimensions of culture) compare with U. S. culture in on causes of global warming, business? And, what are the the pigman, implications for U. S. businesses that what to do business in that region? Particular focus will be on Chinese trading relations with the heart tale thesis, United States. This relationship that began in 1979 has built up to the pigman the present where China has become the United States second largest trading partner. Page 2 Global Business Cultural Analysis: China Essay. vast majority of that trade takes place in the form of imports of Chinese goods to the United States. Some believe that this has been a detriment to the U. S. economy.

Scott (2011) states that the growing United States-China trade deficit has either eliminated of displaced 2. 8 million jobs between the years 2001-2010. The greatest effect was seen in statement tell, the manufacturing sector which accounted for 69. 2% of the total jobs lost for themes the period. How Do You Know On! This is essay seen by the U. S. government as a huge concern, especially if the trend continues. China and the United States have a history of volatility that continues to the present day. Biodiversity! The growing involvement of China in the U. S. economy as the the pigman essay, largest holder of publicly held debt makes for an even more interesting study. The overriding perception globally is that the United States has grown weaker, while China is growing stronger (Timofeev, 2012). That pendulum of super power status seems to be swinging. Like it or not, the United States has to come to terms with its diminishing global status in biodiversity, comparison to China. What are the Major Elements and Dimensions of Culture in This Region? Background The U. Themes! S. Department of State, Background Note: China (2011) offers some background information for China to essays and effects of global begin our discussion.

Geographically speaking, China’s land mass covers approximately 3. 7 million miles with the the pigman themes essay, capital city being Beijing. It experiences two climates; tropical in the south region and subarctic in the north. China’s population as of July 2011 is estimated to be 1,336,718,015. Life expectancy is 72. 68 years for men and 76. 94 years for women. The government of China is a Communist party-led state. China does have a constitution which was enacted December 4, 1982.

There are a total of compare contrast essay transition words seven languages spoken in China with the predominate dialect being Mandarin (spoken by more than 70% of the population). At the core of any nation’s culture are its religious beliefs. In China there are the the pigman, “Three Jewels” Confucianism, Daoism, and Buddhism, as described in Lopez (1996). Essays Of Global! There are small numbers of the pigman themes people practicing other religions such as Christianity and Islam, but these are the three dominant beliefs of the region. While they are separate in content, they have coexisted for several thousand years. Lopez (1996) goes on to say, “Historical precedent and popular parlance attest to the importance of this threefold division for essays on causes and effects warming understanding Chinese culture…Buddhism is the sun, Daoism the moon, and Confucianism the five planets…suggesting that although they remain separate, they also coexist as equally indispensable phenomena of the natural world. ” Each belief system stands alone, and at the same time needs the other(s). Confucianism. The religion of Confucianism begins, of course, with Confucius whose Chinese name was Kong Qui and who lived from 551 B. C. to 479 B. C. Essay! Surprisingly Confucius was merely a low level government worker. He did not exactly view himself as the founder of a school of thought. How Do Your Essay! Regardless, Confucianism is the most influential belief system in Chinese culture. It provides the the pigman themes, rules which govern the social behavior of the individual.

The basic teachings of Confucius are grounded in the Five Constant Virtues: humanity, righteousness, propriety, wisdom, and faithfulness. Confucius went on to define five basic human relations and principles for each relation called Wu Lun. Sovereign and subject (master and follower): Loyalty and compare contrast essay words, duty. The Pigman Themes Essay! Father and son: Love and obedience. Husband and wife: Obligation and submission. Elder and younger brothers: Seniority and modeling. Friend and friend: Trust (Fan, 2000). Confucianism defines the behavioral and moral doctrine regarding relationships, social structures, virtuous behavior, and work ethic.

Daoism Those who practice Daoism live in reverence of the Dao, which is translated as the on causes and effects, Way. The point of a Daoist way of life is to strive for harmony with the the pigman essay, Dao, who is the essence of everything that exists. Unlike Confucianism, Daoism does not name a founder of its school of thought. It is believed, however, that a person named Laozi is responsible for its initial teachings. He wrote one of the most prominent early texts associated with Daoism, “The Classic on the Way and Its Power. ” The Daoist attitude toward life can be seen as carefree and accepting, which is oxford thesis binding holywell a stark contrast to the moral and themes essay, duty conscious teachings of Confucianism. Daoism also has a positive view as well as being active in metaphysical activities and the occult, which is also in contrast to Confucianism.

While Confucianism touts its principles for you know what to write college essay on the proper way that individuals should interact, the tradition of Daoism is that all beings and the pigman essay, things in the universe are fundamentally the same and the natural order of things cannot be manipulated or predicted. It needs only to be embraced (Fan, 2000). Buddhism Like Confucianism, Buddhism has a central character whose teachings guide the religious belief. The traditions of Buddhism are largely based on the teachings of Siddhartha Guatama, who is better known as the Buddha. In Sanskrit, Buddha is translated to “the enlightened one. Heart Statement Tale Thesis! ” Buddhas–enlightened ones–are unusual because they differ from other, unenlightened individuals and because of the truths to which they have awakened. Most people live in profound ignorance, which causes immense suffering.

Buddhas, by contrast, see the true nature of reality (Lopez, 1996). The Buddhas have the themes essay, ability through their “enlightenment” to do what the rest of essays and effects of global us cannot, solve the mysteries of the human existence. Other Religions While statistics show that there are a large number of Christians practicing in China (nearly 23 million), it’s not clear how many houses of worship there are because so many Christians practice in unregistered religious gatherings or “house” churches, primarily due to the fear of persecution or the possibly imprisonment. Being a practicing Christian in China can be a dangerous prospect. The next highest religious population is the Muslims at 21 million. Of China’s 55 officially recognized minorities, 10 groups are predominately Muslim.

According to government figures, there are 36,000 Islamic places of worship and more than 45,000 imams found in throughout the nation (U. Themes Essay! S. Department of State, 2011). Family and Social Orientation In Chinese culture, the family unit is of great importance. Re-examining the human relations and principles under Confucianism, it is clear how much of an how do what to write essay on emphasis is put on family. Principles are stressed regarding fathers and sons, husbands and wives, and siblings. Themes! Words such as love and obedience, obligation and submission, and seniority and modeling are emphasized. Family relationships are meant to thesis be harmonious and beneficial to each party. Among the family unit there is a sense of belonging and a feeling of solidarity (Guo, 2004).

Interpersonal Relations Just as family relationships are important, non-family or social relationships are very important as well. Confucius also talks about trust between friends. The Pigman Themes! Trust is a vital part of any Chinese relationship (the same can be said of any relationship from rights act of 1965 any country). The Pigman! Other essential relational traits include; Jen-ai or kindness, tolerance, courtesy, humbleness, reciprocation of greetings, favors and gifts, and face (protecting, giving, gaining, and losing) (Fan, 2000). How are the Elements and Dimensions Integrated by Locals Doing Business in the Nation? Business and Work Attitudes Chinese attitudes toward conducting business are very strict and proper. For instance, there is no “Casual Friday” to be found on the calendar.

They view the business transaction as more than just a deal, but as a process that involves proper manners and etiquette. In a meeting setting all introductions are formal, proper and formal titles are to be used at all times and in a meeting setting, always allow the Chinese to leave the meeting first. For the Chinese, the business decision making process is slow and meticulous (Dellios, 2005). There are no quick off the cuff decisions made. Compare Contrast Transition Words! The Chinese value rank and status in an organization, so when conducting a business meeting the highest ranking, most important person who is present in your company should lead the meeting. The Chinese do not appreciate a surprise visit to the office by a business associate. Appointments are a must. To not do so would be considered rude.

Finally, when greeting each other, bowing or nodding is always the common practice. However, a handshake may be offered, but only if the Chinese offer it first. Management Philosophy As has been previously mentioned, Chinese culture is greatly influenced by themes essay Confucianism. Love, integrity, loyalty, and conscientiousness toward others are characteristics that are present not only in essays of global, everyday life at home, but in the business world as well. Confucianism encourages devotion to parents, family, friends, leaders, and the society, and respect towards authority. Perseverance, patience, and tolerance are also highly valued in the Chinese culture. Another characteristic of the the pigman, Confucius culture is the holywell, high importance put on the understanding of proper etiquette and social norms (Jiang amp; Liu, 2004). The Pigman! In a Chinese corporation, the Chief Executive Officer (CEO) is the ultimate leader as well as decision maker.

Given the Chinese belief in loyalty in respect of superiors, this role becomes even more amplified. Chinese Business Etiquette In a 2012 Interview of a Chinese businessman by the International Business Center, the following question was asked: What is the essays warming, single most common business etiquette mistake that Americans make in your home country? Answer: I believe that the most common mistake is to adopt the attitude that things like etiquette is the pigman themes essay not important, even a waste of time. Only discussions and negotiations of the technical and financial matters are of value. Essays On Causes Warming! This view, in my opinion, reflects the assumption that every transaction stands on its own, without considering subsequent trade. Many societies (including many Americans) do not view business this way. The Chinese most certainly do not view business etiquette and manners as a waste of time. They parallel in the pigman, importance with the actual business dealing at hand. Here is a sampling of some of the tale, specific behaviors and manners expected to be demonstrated when dealing with the themes, Chinese as offered by the International Business Center (Williams, 2012). Appearance * Conservative suits for thesis biodiversity men with subtle colors are the norm. The Pigman Themes Essay! * Women should avoid high heels and short sleeved blouses.

The Chinese frown on women who display too much. Oxford Thesis! * Subtle, neutral colors should be worn by both men and women. The Pigman Themes Essay! * Casual dress should be conservative as well. * Men and women can wear jeans. However, jeans are not acceptable for business meetings. Revealing clothing for women is what your considered offensive to Chinese businessmen. Manners * Do not use large hand movements. The Chinese do not speak with their hands.

Your movements may be distracting to your host. * Personal contact must be avoided at themes essay, all cost. It is highly inappropriate for a man to touch a woman in public. * Do not point when speaking. * To point do not use your index finger, use an open palm. * It is considered improper to put your hand in thesis, your mouth. * Avoid acts that involve the mouth. * It is more acceptable to give gifts either in private or to a group as a whole to avoid embarrassment. Quality writing pens are considered favored gifts. Proper Dining Manners * Always arrive on time or early if you are the guest. * Do not discuss business at the pigman themes essay, meals. * Do not start to eat or drink prior to the host. * As a cultural courtesy, you should taste all the dishes you are offered. * Sample meals only, there may be several courses. * Do not drop the biodiversity, chopsticks it is considered bad luck. * Do not eat all of your meal. Essay! If you eat all of thesis your meal, the Chinese will assume you did not receive enough food and are still hungry. * Women do not usually drink at meals. Tipping is considered insulting, however the practice is becoming more common. As you can see, there is no shortage of etiquette and manners in the pigman essay, Chinese business settings. It would be incumbent upon how do you know what to write your on anyone who plans on doing business in China to take the time to become familiar with Chinese culture and customs and by all means, take it very seriously (Williams, 2012). How do Both of the Above Items Compare with U. Themes Essay! S. Culture and Business? China as a Superpower One of the most important aspects of China’s presence on binding holywell, the global business landscape is the rise of China as one of the worlds Superpowers.

As the new century unfolds, in all probability so will China’s prospects unfold as a global power, not just a regional one. Consider once again China’s contemporary dimensions – an enormous country with the world’s largest population and military establishment. Its economy is among the world’s fastest growing. It is expected to become the largest by the year 2025. Historically too, it is imbued with greatness…inheriting 5,000 years of civilization (Dellios, 2004). Economically speaking, China is the world’s fourth largest trading nation. The Pigman Themes Essay! That status has progressed from thirty-second in 1978 and tenth in 1997. Its economy has grown at an average of 9. 5% annually since 1985.

Its Gross Domestic Product ranks second only to the U. S. at 13% of the on causes and effects warming, world’s output. China’s population makes up one-fifth of the world’s total population and geographically it is the third largest country behind Russia and Canada (Dellios, 2004). The influence of China over the world’s economy has continued to grow in recent years. One need not look ant further than China’s involvement in the economy of the U. S. to see that demonstrated. As China continues to grow it is possible that it may overtake the United States as the world’s foremost super power. United States – China Relations Political Relations In recent years, the agenda of U. S. – China relations has changed dramatically. Current U. S. -China relations have moved far beyond a bilateral or regional Asian relationship. The current presidential cycle in the U. S. The Pigman! essentially differs from the periods of Bill Clinton and George W. Statement! Bush. Indeed, in the pigman themes essay, his statements during the election campaign Clinton concentrated on essays on voting act of, violations of human rights in China, and accused his predecessor of foreign policy anemia following the Tiananmen Square massacre.

It also differs from the George W. Bush’s considering of China as “not a strategic partner, but a strategic competitor. ” Under the current circumstances of the global financial and economic crisis, the agenda of essay bilateral dialogue between Washington and Beijing focuses mainly on economic problems (Timofeev, 2012). Throughout the Cold War the two big kids on the block were the United States and Russia. In recent years Russia has been replaced in its position by how do what to write China. Business Relations The relationship between the United States and China is deep and the pigman, complex. In recent years China has become a huge player in the economy of the United States.

The Department of the Treasury reports that China owns about 8% of U. S. publicly held dept equal to $1. 7 trillion. There are other foreign holders of US debt, but none to the extent of China. A September 2011 Congressional Research Service Report estimates that US exports to heart statement tale tell thesis China for the pigman 2011 will total $109. 2 billion and biodiversity, imports will be $410. 64 billion. The net result is a trade deficit of $301. 4 billion. The same report outlines the historical figures of trade between the US and China dating back to 1980 when exports to China stood at the pigman essay, $3. Oxford Holywell! 8 billion and imports were $1.1 billion. As this relationship progresses, it can only essay, be assumed that it will grow even more complex (Morrison, 2011).

In a speech given at a luncheon hosted by the American Bankers Association on December 8, 2003, Chinese Premier Wen Jiabao proposed five principles of fair trade and economic partnership between China and the U. S. : “First, mutual benefits and win-win results. Oxford Binding! Thinking broadly, one should take account of essay others’ interests while pursuing its own. Second, development first. Existing differences should be resolved through expanded trade and economic cooperation. Third, greater scope to coordinating mechanisms in bilateral trade and essays and effects, economic relations. Disputes should be addressed in a timely manner through communication and the pigman themes essay, consultation to avoid possible escalation. Fourth, equal consultation. The two sides should seek consensus while reserving differences on major issues, instead of imposing restrictions or sanctions at every turn. Fifth, do not politicize economic and trade issues. ” (Timofeev, 2012).

Trade Relations Since 2000, the statement thesis, United States has incurred its largest bilateral trade deficit with China ($201 billion in 2005, a 25% rise over 2004). In 2003, China replaced Mexico as the second largest source of imports for the United States. China’s share of U. S. imports was 14. 6% in 2005, although this proportion still falls short of Japan’s 18% of the early 1990s. The United States is China’s largest overseas market and the pigman themes, second largest source of foreign direct investment on you know what your college essay, a cumulative basis.

U. S. exports to China have been growing rapidly as well, although from a low base. In 2004, China replaced Germany and Great Brittan to become the fourth largest market for U. Themes Essay! S. goods and remains the fastest growing major U. S. export market (Lum amp; Nanto, 2007). Some items that the U. S. imports from China include: computer equipment and contrast, parts, toys and games, communications equipment, apparel, and audio and video equipment. In contrast, the U. S. imports to the pigman China include: oilseeds and grains, waste and scrap, semiconductors, aerospace products (aircraft), and resin and synthetic rubber. The most dramatic increases in U. Essays Rights Act Of! S. imports from China have not been in labor intensive sectors rather in technology sectors. U. S. The Pigman Essay! trade policy with China is based on the assumption that trade will be beneficial to both countries both economically and politically (Lum amp; Nanto, 2007). The developing Chinese economy gives the U. S. an opportunity to be a part of a large and expanding market. What are the Implications for act of U. Essay! S. Businesses That Wish to Conduct Business in That Region? Chinese Global Trading Partners China runs a trade surplus with the world’s three major economic centers: the United States, the heart statement thesis, European Union, and Japan. We have previously documented the trade figures between the U. S. and the pigman essay, China.

As is the case with the United States, Japan has run a trade deficit with China since the 1980’s. Japan’s trade with China dropped from a surplus of $6 billion in 1985 to a deficit of nearly $6 billion in 1990. Japan’s trade deficit with China reached a peak of $26. 5 billion in 2001 and was surpassed in tale tell, 2005 ($28. 5 billion). Japan’s exports to China have grown dramatically in the past few years, its largest exports to China are: electronics, machinery, iron and the pigman essay, steel, optical, photographic, and medical equipment, and organic chemicals. The European Union incurred a trade deficit with China of $947 million in oxford thesis, 1988, which grew to $121. 8 billion in 2005.

The European Union trade deficit with China began in the late 1990’s and grew to $63 billion in 2005. Compared to the world’s two other major economic centers, the U. S. trade deficit with China at over $300 billion is the largest, followed by the European Union deficit with China at $121. 8 billion and themes, Japan at $28. 5 billion (U. Binding Holywell! S. Department of State, 2011). United States – China Trade Issues The Growing U. S. trade deficit with China cost 2. 8 million jobs between 2001 and 2010 by the pigman essay Robert Scott, EPI’s Director of Trade and Manufacturing Policy Research, finds that all 50 states, the District of Columbia and Puerto Rico suffered jobs lost or displaced as a result of the growing U.S. Binding! -China trade deficit…it eliminated or displaced 2,790,100 jobs, or about 2% of themes essay total U. S. employment over that period. (Scott, 2011).

The U. S. trade deficit with China grew from essays on causes and effects of global warming $84 billion in 2001 to in excess of the pigman essay $300 billion in 2011. As a rule, increases in U. S. exports tend to create jobs for United States, and increases in thesis biodiversity, imports tend to lead to job loss. Thus, the growing trade deficit signifies growing job loss. China’s economic reforms and rapid economic growth, along with the effects of globalization, have caused the economies of the the pigman, U. S. and China to become increasingly integrated. Although growing economic ties are considered by most analysts to compare contrast essay words be mutually beneficial overall, tensions have risen over a number of Chinese economic and trade policies that many U. S. Themes! critics charge are protectionist, economically distortive, and damaging to U. And Effects! S. economic interests. These include China’s resistance to adopting a market-based currency; its mixed record on implementing its obligations in themes essay, the World Trade Organization (Morrison, 2011).

Another great concern is Chinese manipulation of its currency (Yuan). Many U. S. policymakers and business representatives claim that China manipulates its currency in order to keep the on causes and effects of global warming, value artificially low against the dollar (U. S. Department of State, 2011). They claim that this action results in a subsidy for Chinese exports to the United States, and themes essay, results in a tariff on how do to write your essay, Chinese imported U. S. goods. They complain that this policy has particularly hurt several U. S. manufacturing sectors that are forced to compete against low-cost Chinese products, and has led to the loss of hundreds of thousands of U. Essay! S. jobs.

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ancestor essay The Jergens Family Essay (1936-37) Our research for the history of the essay, JERGENS Family of Dayton, Ohio began with the essay, “The Ancestors of the Present Jergens Family,” written by Margaret Jergens in 1936 and Maryann Jergens in 1937 for a high school English class assignment. Margaret Jergens (her maiden name) wrote to us on October 27, 1992, regarding this document: “…Maryann had her copy of the Jergens family report (essay) that I had written as a high school junior – of course, my Mother and compare, Daddy and themes essay, all the relatives in our neighborhood were able to essays on causes and effects warming contribute information – (56 years ago they were all alive ).” The year after Margaret wrote her family history essay, her sister Maryann got the the pigman essay, same assignment from the same teacher at Kiser High School in Dayton. (When Maryann went to their parents for help, they told her to use the information they had given Margaret the previous year!) Maryann thoughtfully preserved a copy of her essay, which Margaret had the good sense to contrast essay transition words pass along to us. Our thanks to the pigman both Jergens women for sharing this priceless resource. Keep in compare essay, mind that this is an themes oral history written down by essays on causes and effects teenagers many years ago. And it's a good example of family tradition – the the pigman themes essay, essay contains quite a bit of questionable information and erroneous dates, alongside a great deal of useful and accurate information. Thesis Biodiversity? For the purpose of clarity we made a few minor changes, to the pigman themes essay punctuation, spelling and phrasing, that do not change the how do college on, story or detract from essay its voice. One item in the essay that we should view with a healthy dose of essays act of 1965 skepticism is the family lore about the Jergens family of Dayton being “cousins of the the pigman essay, Andrew Jergens family of Cincinnati, the essays on voting, manufacturers of Jergens Lotion.” From what we’ve found published about the Andrew Jergens family, it appears they immigrated to the pigman essay this country a quarter of a century or more after our Jergens ancestor arrived. If they were related to our Jergens family in Europe, that has yet to be discovered. In terms of its overall structure, the and effects warming, genealogy described in the essay is turning out to the pigman essay be mostly correct.

Some of the compare contrast, names got a little confused, and many dates in the essay are erroneous (they obviously were working from memory). Where documentary evidence consistently disagrees with the essay, we have given preference to the former rather than to the essay. When the data have been conflicting, we’ve tried to provide a reasonable interpretation. References to living descendants have been removed or omitted from both The Ancestors of the the pigman, Present Jergens Family and the narrative history in order to how do you know essay protect the privacy of these individuals. Undoubtedly, more of the themes essay, Jergens story will be unearthed in years to come. As new data surface, the story will change; but we’re willing to how do what to write college essay bet this foundation stands the test of the pigman essay time. Essay: “The Ancestors of the Present Jergens Family” On both the paternal and maternal sides of my ancestors, little is known.

My great-great-grandparents were the first to travel to tell this country. On the paternal side of themes my ancestors, from thesis binding holywell whom I am directly descended, Germany and Sweden are represented. A long time before my great-great-grandparent, Andrew Jergens, and his brothers Phillip, Peter, and John came to America, their forefathers tilled the soil of Sweden. The Pigman? While in Sweden, these ancestors spelled their surname as Jergenson, but somewhere along the line the on was eliminated, and the spelling remained as it is spelled today. This probably occurred when my Swedish forefathers went to Germany to live. My great-great-grandfather, Andrew Jergens, was born on heart tale tell, his father's estate in the pigman essay, Berlin, Germany, on June 25, 1797.

His three brothers were born there also: Phillip, born October 5, 1799; Peter, born March 21, 1801; and John, born December 14, 1803. This estate was located directly next to the estate of the Kaiser, then the ruler of Germany. This close connection of property later caused the departure of the four brothers from their native land. Their leaving was caused by heart tale a dispute between the Kaiser and my great-great-great-grandfather, Phillip Jergens. The dispute grew out of the shooting of the Kaiser's prize deer. While the four brothers attempted to save their crops from the deer by shooting at them, the Kaiser was opposed to their actions. After being warned three times, they left the country. The Pigman? Before their flight from the country, they tried different ways to escape the Kaiser.

Andrew evaded the Kaiser's men through his knowledge of witchcraft. When he was at a loss for a place to hide, he would turn himself into a tree stump. His pursuers would sit down and rest, knocking the ashes from their pipes on his nose. At another time he escaped capture and death by oxford thesis holywell simply disappearing. Themes Essay? He also had the power to oxford holywell drive fire from burns and to bring back stolen articles.

After the the pigman themes essay, third warning, their estate was partially confiscated and the family dispersed. The mother and father remained in Germany on what land was left for them. Their four sons, Andrew, Phillip, Peter and John, came to America. They completed their voyage, reached port in New York and traveled together until they came to Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. Here they parted, never to on voting rights 1965 see one another again. This was about the themes, year 1818. From Pittsburgh, each traveled to a different city: Phillip went to Chicago, Illinois; Andrew established his residence in Cincinnati, Ohio; John remained in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania; and the exact city of Peter's settlement was never known.

From the day of their parting they never again renewed family ties. After Andrew settled in Cincinnati, he married a German girl, whose name is unknown, on May 22, 1820. He followed the occupation which nearly every one of his relatives, living before and after him, followed, that of gardening. The exact number of children reared by him and his wife is unknown, although it is known that on February 8, 1822, Phillip Jergens was born. He remained with his parents until his marriage to Mary Stephens on September 10, 1845. Mary Stephens was born in Cincinnati on July 27, 1823. Phillip and Mary established their residence on Price Hill, Cincinnati, Ohio. My great-great-grandparents, Andrew and his wife, lived in Cincinnati for some time, later moving to Dayton, where they died in 1850 and 1852, respectively.

Mary Stephens Jergens, my great-grandmother, bore four daughters in Cincinnati: Helen, born January 15, 1846; Mary, born April 3, 1847; Magdalena, born October 29, 1848; and Elizabeth, born August 6, 1853. Oxford Thesis? When Elizabeth was but a babe in arms, her parents moved to Dayton in the pigman, a covered wagon, drawn by two horses. They made their home on the Old Troy Pike, about 3 miles from Kiser High School. Compare Contrast Essay Words? Since then three generations have lived here on the same tract of land chosen by my great-grandfather, Phillip Jergens. This land has been held for the pigman 83 years under the contrast essay transition, name of Jergens. After they had settled in Dayton, five sons were born to them.

The eldest of the sons, Phillip, was born on September 23, 1855 and died November 9, 1937. The next son was Peter, my grandfather, born on November 6, 1857. The three other sons were William, born August 18, 1859 -- William died 21 years later, in Dayton, on October 10, 1880; Jacob was born on November 23, 1861 -- he lived for about six weeks and the pigman, then he died; and the next and last son was Joseph who was born on holywell, May 16, 1863. Great-grandfather Jergens died on May 22, 1907; my great-grandmother Jergens died on August 25, 1899. All the daughters of the family are dead. Essay? Helen married Jacob Zink, raised a family of twelve children, and died in essays rights act of 1965, Dayton on February 7, 1925.

Mary married Joseph Zink, raised a family of twelve children, and died in West Milton, Ohio, on January 11, 1906. Magdalena married John Kleinfelder, raised a family of ten children, and died on October 25, 1908. Elizabeth married George Logel, raised two children, and died in Dayton on July 12, 1933. Just one son of the family is dead. Phillip married Mary Abelle; they raised one boy and one girl; Peter married Magdalena Abelle and raised two sons; his daughter died. Joseph married Mary Desinger, raised two girls and two boys, and died on September 20, 1925 in the pigman, Dayton.

My grandfather, Peter Jergens, married Magdalena Abelle on June 23, 1886 at Holy Trinity Church, Dayton. Magdalena Abelle Jergens was born on May 12, 1868 and heart statement tale, died on February 23, 1895. She was the daughter of John and Barbara Funkmeyer Abelle. She had one brother, Joseph, and three sisters, Mary, Cynthia and themes, Barbara. Their birth and death dates are unknown. The birth, marriage and death dates of Magdalena's parents and grandparents are also unknown. Magdalena bore three children.

The first born was my aunt Mary; born on December 15, 1889, she died about an hour after her birth. One year later my uncle, Henry, was born on December 9, 1890. Essays On Causes? On May 8, 1912 Henry married Bertha Rediess in Our Lady of the Rosary Church in Dayton. They had eight children and the pigman, one daughter died. Three years later my father, Peter, Jr., was born on November 23, 1893. All three children were born in contrast, the small brick house located about 100 feet from my present home, as was their father and his brothers before them. The brick house is still standing to the pigman this day. Peter married Cecilia Leyes on May 10, 1917 at compare contrast essay transition, Our Lady of the the pigman, Rosary Church in Dayton. The members of this generation of the Jergens family are the third cousins of the Andrew Jergens family of Cincinnati, the manufacturers of Jergens Lotion. On the maternal side of my ancestors, from whom I am directly descended, France and essays on causes warming, Germany are represented.

The first generation of this side of the themes essay, family which can be traced back the farthest is my great-great-grandparents. They were John Hecht and Margaret Grau Hecht, both of whom were born in Wittenberg, Germany. The dates of their births, marriage and oxford thesis binding, deaths are unknown. They are the parents of Henry John Hecht, my grandfather. John and essay, Margaret Grau Hecht came to America in 1844. They lived at first in Cincinnati, on Vine Street, and later moved to oxford thesis Dayton with both their sons, who were born in themes, Cincinnati. Their sons were Henry John, born June 24, 1846, died October 30, 1901; and Michael, born August 17, 1848, died March 5, 1884. When they came to Dayton, they located their home in the south of Dayton on what is now called Bonner Street. Henry John Hecht married Elizabeth Ziegler on contrast essay, August 11, 1864 at St. Mary's Church in Dayton. My great-grandmother was a convert to the pigman Catholicism from the Lutheran religion.

She was the holywell, daughter of the pigman essay Joseph and Dorothea Slatz Ziegler. She was born in Wittenberg, Germany, on October 30, 1846. Essays Rights? She died on themes, December 9, 1918. The birth, marriage and death dates of her parents are unknown. On Voting? They are probably buried in Dayton because they came to America in 1862 with their three daughters and one son. Henry and Elizabeth Ziegler Hecht reared a family of ten children.

The eldest of their children, Anna, who is my grandmother, was born on July 26, 1869 and married Henry Leyes. The Pigman? She is the essays rights, sister of four more girls and three boys. Two other children died in infancy. Charles, born August 10, 1876, married Molly Linich. Mary Agnes, born May 2, 1878, died six weeks later.

Dorothy was born April 23, 1880. Michael, born November 20, 1883, died two years later. Gertrude, born December 6, 1885, has been a nun in the convent of St. The Pigman? Francis of the Poor for the past 25 years. Henry was born November 12, 1887 and died March 27, 1930. Clara was born June 15, 1888. About the paternal ancestors on my mother's side, facts are unknown to exist from the time of my great-grandparents.

My great-grandfather John Leyes was born July 26, 1839 in Alsace Lorraine, France. The names of his parents are unknown, likewise their birth, marriage and death dates. John Leyes married Margaret Seager on June 15, 1855. She is also a convert to Catholicism from the Lutheran religion. She was the daughter of compare contrast transition words John and essay, Mary Seager.

She was born in Guttenberg, Germany on April 10, 1840 and came to heart statement tale tell thesis this country with her parents and essay, her brother John Seager when they were children. On Causes And Effects Warming? Her parents died when she was young. They were buried at essay, Greencastle Cemetery, Dayton, Ohio. More than this we do not know of my great-great-grandparents. My great-grandparents Leyes raised a family of ten children. At the college, time of the birth of the pigman essay their eldest son, my great-grandmother, Margaret Seager Leyes, purchased a second-hand cradle. She used it for essay transition the five children who lived, beginning with my great uncle Joseph Leyes. When my great-grandmother was through using it, her children, as they were married, used it for the pigman themes essay their children, until it passed along the line, finally reaching my grandfather Leyes. My grandparents used it for compare contrast essay transition their seven children.

It then went to my mother who used it for her eight [surviving] children…. We are to this day preserving it for future use, although its rockers are worn thin and the pigman, a new bottom has to replace the older warped one. It is made entirely of walnut, with a dark walnut stain and finish. The four posts, which form the legs also, are carved to shape balls, which are connected. The side pieces are fashioned the same way in a smaller pattern. As far as we know, it is essays on voting act of, of the Queen Anne style of furniture. The Pigman Themes Essay? Its value in the family is untold, because of its rare beauty and age which is estimated to be about 100 years. On Voting Rights Act Of? After the birth of Joseph, there were five still-born children, therefore without names. The dates of their births are also unknown.

The remaining five are: Joseph, born February 10, 1856, married Mary Kinzic, died November 3, 1934; Catherine, born July 30, 1858, married Andrew Stick; Carolina, born August 6, 1880, married three times, first to Louis Stick, second to Charles Kramer, and third to Carl Coates, died on September 13, 1929; Phillip, born January 26, 1886, married Mary Niehous, died November 30, 1934; the the pigman, last child was Henry, born May 23, 1871, married Anna Hecht on May 11, 1892 at Emanuel Church, Dayton, Ohio. Thesis? Henry Leyes is my grandfather and Anna Hecht Leyes is my grandmother. They made their home on the Old Troy Pike where they raised all their children. They are still living there. They raised a family of seven children of whom my mother is the eldest. My mother, Cecilia Leyes Jergens, married Peter Jergens, Jr. on May 10, 1917 at Our Lady of the Rosary Church, Dayton, Ohio. My maternal grandparents' family included: Cecilia, born March 18, 1895, married Peter Jergens, Jr. on May 10,1917, has eight living children, one deceased son; Louise, born May 11, 1897, married Louis Clayton on March 7, 1919, has three children; Andrew, born April 19, 1899, married Irma Hill on January 17, 1925, has four living and four deceased children; Dorothy, born March 26, 1901, married Charles Leidig on the pigman themes, September 12, 1924, have no children; Catherine, born April 20, 1903, became a nun in thesis biodiversity, the convent of St. Francis of the Poor at Hartwell, Cincinnati, Ohio, went to Germany in 1927 and died there on March 12, 1930; Raymond, born June 20, 1905, has not married; and Herbert, born on February 16, 1908, married Margaret Smith on November 7, 1936. The Pigman Themes Essay? When Peter and Cecilia Leyes Jergens were married, they established their residence at the homestead on the Old Troy Pike.

It was here that their children were born, all except the on voting rights, baby of the family who was born at the Miami Valley hospital. My father is following the occupation which his father and grandfather followed before him, that of gardening, although today he has eight acres planned and worked in the pigman essay, a more modern manner. With one of the largest irrigation systems in the Mad River Township, his success at gardening is evident. The engine, which supplies the water to the thirty-six pipe lines, pumps three hundred gallons of water a minute. The pipe lines to which the water is heart tell, pumped have an the pigman themes average of one hundred and ten nozzles, or openings, in them. Compare Words? The patent for these nozzles was obtained by the Skinner Irrigation System, before my father could apply for one. My father had also perfected these nozzles. The organizer of the Skinner company gave a district salesmanship to themes my father instead. He has held this position for 26 years. At present he is employed at Frigidaire Corporation, working at how do you know to write college essay on, Plant 2, Moraine City.

Before her marriage, my mother attended school from the first through the sixth grades at a little red school house on themes, the Old Troy Pike. She completed the essays on voting act of, seventh and eighth grades at the Emanuel Parochial School. Upon leaving Emanuel's school, she attended Miami Jacob College and Stivers High School night classes. At the completion of her education she worked in themes, the Schaeffer home of Oakwood. She was employed for six years before her marriage to Peter Jergens, Jr.

Therefore with the family, of which I am a member, being descended from ancestors who have come from Germany, France and Sweden, we form a family of mixed traits. Some of these traits are strongly prominent. We are all staunch Roman Catholics, about evenly divided between the dark and light complexioned, and all fairly largely built, physically.

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Essay on the Importance of Library. The library occupies a very important place in school. The Pigman Themes Essay! With its books suited to the interests and aptitude of students of different age group, with its magazines, periodicals, news papers and with its calm and tranquil atmosphere it has a special call to the students who go there and quench their thirst for reading the material which cannot be provided to them in the class room. Here they find an oxford thesis holywell environment which is conductive to the building up of habit of self learning. The library is the center of the intellectual and social activities of school. The Pigman Themes! The library has got very wholesome effect over the work of school. Habit of reading can be cultivated, when students get practice in reading and reading habit in the beginning are made firm when students get that material to read which interests them and occupies their attention. In the class room the books that are prescribed may not serve the essays on voting rights 1965 purpose, some students may not be in the pigman themes a position to how do you know what to write your college essay on, purchase all books that they want to read, while others may not find books that are of interest to the pigman essay, them. Interests differ, aptitudes vary, individual capacities present a wide variation in students’ reading capacities. In the library each has what he wants, each goes at the speed to which his capabilities allow him to go. The library is thus, a common platform upon which all students meet on a common level with equal opportunities.

It is the nucleus of the school environment, the center of the intellectual activities of the school. The library may be regarded as an essential instrument for essays 1965 putting progressive methods into practice. But it is most unfortunate that in a large number of schools there are at present no libraries worth the name. The books are usually old, out-dated, unsuitable, usually selected without reference to the students’ tastes and interests. They are stocked in themes a few book shelves, which are housed in an inadequate and unattractive room.

The person in compare transition charge of the library is often a clerk or an indifferent teacher, who does the work on a part-time basis and has neither love for books nor knowledge of library technique. What makes this situation particularly difficult is the fact that most teachers and headmasters and even the educational administrators and authorities do not realize how unsatisfactory this position is the pigman themes and, therefore, hey have no sense to take necessary steps for improving the condition. The library must be made the most attractive place in the school so that students will be naturally drawn to it. It should be housed in a spacious well lighted hall. The book shelves, tables, chairs, reading desks should be carefully designed with an eye to artistic effect as well as functional efficiency. As far as possible the essay open shelf system should be introduced so that students may have free access to books. The success of library depends largely on the proper selection of books, journals and periodicals.

There should be a small committee of teachers, for selecting the books for the library. The Pigman Essay! The guiding principles in selection should be, not the teacher’s own idea of what books the students must read but their natural and psychological interests. The Commission recommended that trained librarians who have a love for books and understanding of student’s interests should be provided in all secondary schools and all teachers should be given some training in the basic principles of library work in essays on causes and effects warming the training colleges as well as through refresher courses. As the proper use of the pigman essay well equipped school library is heart tale tell absolutely essential for the official working of every educational institution and for encouraging literary and cultural interests in students, every secondary school should have such a library. Class libraries and subject libraries should also be utilized for the purpose. The subject teachers should be in charge of subject library. Competent subject teachers can enrich their teaching greatly with the the pigman themes essay help of small collections of books in their own subjects. This should not be confined to text books only. Advance works, reference books, books on related subjects and allied field, all these will find a place in that collection.

Most of the teachers in fact, have no idea of what a majority of students are reading or whether they are reading at all. So the Commission recommended that a systematic register should be maintained and each student must be allotted a few pages of the transition register in which all books studied by him are entered date-wise. This procedure will be very much helpful to the class teachers and headmasters to give necessary advice and the pigman essay encouragement to individual student for developing their reading habit. On the other hand each student is expected to maintain a diary in which he may enter date-wise, the names of all the books (with the names of the Authors) which he has read together with brief quotation or extracts that may appeal to contrast essay words, him. The Commission further suggested that where there are no separate public libraries, the school libraries should, so far as possible make their facilities available to the local public and all public libraries should have a special section for the pigman themes essay children and adolescents. (i) It supplements class work by increasing students’ vocabulary, quickening their intelligence and extending their general knowledge; (ii) It enables the students to prepare themselves for taking part in the various co-curricular activities of the school. On Voting Rights 1965! They get information which is very helpful to them in taking part in debates, giving lectures and writing for the school magazine; (iii) It develops habits of the students to derive pleasure and the pigman themes information from recreational and informative books; (iv) It broadens their outlook by placing a vast sphere of information before them; (v) It imparts training to the students for the proper use of books; (vi) It gives students training in punctuality by impressing ‘ upon them the necessity of you know to write your returning and borrowing books at a fixed time; (vii) It provides suitable books to the students to satisfy their hunger of reading books and saves them from the harmful effects of reading unsuitable and injurious literature; (viii) It inculcates in the students the habit of silent reading ; (ix) It provides an opportunity to make the themes essay best use of leisure time thereby lessening the chance of indiscipline in the school. In the history of Indian Education the importance of Secondary Education Commission is heart statement tale tell of great significance. The Pigman! Prior to this, various Commissions and Committees recommended for the improvement of secondary education, but adequate steps were not taken at different levels for its practical application. The present system of secondary education was introduced by the British authority.

But within the hundred years of its existence there was no remarkable improvement in the field of secondary education. When everybody was feeling intensely for a progressive and workable change at this level, the Secondary Education Commission submitted its report with constructive suggestions. The Commission attempted to investigate all the fundamental problem pertaining to secondary education and recommended certain concrete measures for eradicating the evils that stood as stumbling block on the path of the thesis progress of education. It probed deep into each and every aspect of the secondary education and made more practical and sound recommendations than those made by other Commissions appointed in the past. The government took initiative to implement some of the recommendation only because those were befitting to the time and made in the light of the recommendations of other Commissions and Committees. The Commission has put forth sincere efforts to rectify those defects persisted in secondary education i.e. Themes! predominance of bookish and literary knowledge, lack of vocational and technical-education, defective system of examination, shortcomings inherent in the managing bodies and organisation of schools etc.

Realizing the futility of single track institutions the Commission gave entirely original suggestion for the establishment of ‘Multipurpose Schools” catering to the needs of the various ability, aptitude and interest of the students. One of the most vital problems that confronting the country at present is the development of agriculture and industry. Inclusion of these subjects in oxford the curriculum of the the pigman secondary education and emphasis of education in them is a notable feature of the Commission. Statement Thesis! For improving the progressively deteriorating conditions regarding discipline, reorganization of administration and management of the pigman school at this level, the commission gave certain practical suggestions. It also made proposals for bringing about a greater diversity and comprehensiveness in educational courses which would include both general and vocational subjects. Besides, other suggestions for reforming examination and evaluation system, diversified of studies, improvement of teachers’ lot, reform of private management etc. are merely repetition and on voting rights act of 1965 lack the spirit of departure from the beaten track. Different Commissions and Committees appointed earlier also highlighted some of these things. As government was not so very keen in eradicating the fundamental defects in the sphere of secondary education, root and the pigman themes branch, the tangible result could not be arrived at. In-spite of the merits and significance of essays of global warming these recommendations there are certain limitations and shortcomings which should not be lost sight off. As a matter of fact the Commission has endeavoured to mould the pre-existing pattern of secondary education by suggesting improvements and changes which are not very sound and effective. The Pigman Themes! Moreover, insufficient attention has been paid for the improvement of heart statement tale female education and suggestion for teachers training is merely conventional.

Its suggestion for financial resources and government responsibilities Sin this regard are most inadequate. In-spite of the above shortcomings and limitations it can be said that the the pigman essay recommendations of the Secondary Education Commission opened a new era of reconstruction and reform of education at the secondary stage. You Know What College Essay! These recommendations have got far reaching consequences and essay are likely to go a long way if faithfully implemented keeping in view to compare essay transition words, strengthen the weakest link in the system of education of the country. Steps were taken during 2nd plan to implement pattern of the pigman essay reorganization of secondary education as recommended by S.E.C.” Accordingly financial allocation was made in the budget. Government took effective measures during 2nd plan period to introduce crafts and diversified courses, better facilities for science teaching, establishment of multipurpose schools and what your college essay on junior technical schools as well as upgrading of the high schools to higher secondary schools. In the 1st plan about 250 multipurpose seconds were established. About 1150 high schools were converted into the pigman themes higher secondary schools by the end of the 2nd plan. As a result of the government’s effort secondary education expanded considerably.

At the end of the 1st plan the number of and effects of global all types of secondary schools was 32,568 with 8,26,509 students and the pigman themes essay the number increased to 66,920 with 1,81,22,356 students by the end of 2nd plan. One of the major aims of the 3rd plan was to expand and intensify the heart tale tell thesis educational effort and to bring every home within its fold so that in all branches of national life, education becomes the focal point of planned development. Education programmes embodied in the 3rd plan were comprehensive in scope. The programme for the reorganization and improvement of the pigman secondary education, which had been implemented during 2nd plan period was continued. It was designed both to enlarge the content of secondary education and to make it a self contained unit within the educational process. During 3rd plan measures were taken for the conversion of high schools into higher secondary schools, development of multipurpose schools with provision of a number of elective subjects, expansion and improvement of facilities for the teaching of science, provision of educational and vocational guidance, improvement of the examination and evaluation system, enlargement of facilities for tale tell thesis vocational education, increased facilities for the education of girls and the backward classes and encouragement to merit through scholarships. However steady progress was maintained during this period and the number of schools increased considerably. The number of the pigman themes essay higher secondary schools increased from thesis, 3,121 to the pigman themes, 6,203 and the number of secondary schools increased to 90 thousands with 300 lakhs students by the end of 3rd plan. During 3rd plan Indian Education Commission was appointed under the chairmanship of Dr. Binding Holywell! D.S.

Kothari, which is popularly known as Kothari Commission, 1964-66. The Commission aimed at an entire overhauling of the existing setup. Besides many other things it pleaded eloquently for the improvement of secondary education and recommended that: (i) Enrolment in the pigman essay secondary education should be regulated during the next twenty years by proper planning of the location of secondary schools, maintaining adequate standards and to that end, by determining the oxford binding holywell enrolment in terms of facilities available and selecting the themes best student; (ii) A developmental plan for secondary education should be prepared for each district and implemented in a period of ten years, (iii) The best students should be selected for admission into secondary schools, through a process of thesis binding self selection at the lower secondary stage, and on essay, the basis of external examination results and school records at the higher secondary stage; (iv) Secondary education should be vocationalised in a large measure and enrolments in vocational courses raised to 20 per cent of how do what your college essay on total enrolment at the lower secondary stage and 50 per cent of total enrolment at the pigman themes the higher secondary stage by 1986. (v) A variety of part-time and contrast words full-time facilities in vocational education should be available at both these stages to meet the needs of the boys and girls, in urban and rural areas. Special sections should be set up in the education department to help young pupils who drop out after class VIII or VII to obtain training on a full time or part time basis, and to be in overall charge of the organisation of these courses; (vi) The central government should provide special grants to state governments in centrally sponsored sector for the vocationalisation of secondary education; (vii) Facilities for part-time education should be provided on the pigman themes, a large scale at the lower and higher secondary stages in general and vocational courses. Special emphasis will have to be placed on agricultural courses or those who have taken to farming as a vocation and on courses in home science or household industries for girls; (viii) Efforts should be made to accelerate the expansion of girls education so that the proportion of girls to boys reaches 1 : 2 at biodiversity the lower secondary stage and 1:3 at the higher secondary stage in 20 years ; (ix) Emphasis should be placed on establishing separate schools for girls, provision of hostels and scholarships and the pigman part-time vocational courses; (x) a national policy for the location of new institutions for each category should be adopted so as to and effects of global, avoid waste and duplication; (xi) Vocational schools should be located near the the pigman industry concerned; (xii) In non-vocational schools, a common curriculum of general education should be provided for on voting act of 1965 the first ten years of school education and diversification of studies and specialization should begin only at the higher secondary stage; (xiii) At the higher secondary stage courses will be diversified in such a manner as to enable pupils to study a group of any three subjects in depth with considerable freedom and elasticity in the grouping of subjects. In order to ensure the themes balanced development of the adolescents, total personality the curriculum at this stage should provide half the time to on causes of global warming, the languages and one-fourth to physical education, arts and crafts, moral and spiritual education. After the recommendations of Kothari Commission, following measures were taken during 4th plan for the qualitative improvement of secondary education.

(i) Enrichment of the content of secondary education by adding one more class to the high school and making it higher secondary course of 11 year duration. (ii) Implementation of a long range programme of examination reform aiming at a closer integration of educational objectives, learning process and methods of evaluation. (iii) Conversion of high schools into higher secondary and multi-purpose schools. Besides, improvement of science education, implementation of the the pigman essay pilot projects for the introduction of work experience and vocationalisation, development of school complex etc. were some of the measures undertaken during 4th plan period. Thesis! As a result of the different measures, the number of schools at themes essay the secondary level increased considerably.

By the year 1973-74, 74.40% boys and 29.60% girls were reading at the secondary stage. Different states accepted the new-pattern of education and introduced this system according to their own convenience. Though there is a lot of confusion and thesis feeling of anxiety in the minds of the people regarding the practical application of the new pattern, yet in the overall interest of the the pigman themes student population and for of global warming national integration there is great need of a uniform pattern of the pigman themes essay education. So steps were taken to accelerate the pace of progress in implementing the new scheme. It was not only for the sake of thesis uniformity that the new structural pattern was introduced, but it was meant to the pigman essay, provide definite stages for on causes of global pupils to branch off from the academic streams. The Pigman! If provision would not be made for students to branch off to essays and effects, vocational courses after completion of the particular stage of education, the the pigman change of pattern would only partially achieve the objectives and students who would do better in vocational courses would tend to go in for general education. During 5th plan, the objective in this sector was consolidated and controlled expansion. In order to oxford thesis holywell, raise the standard of themes education reorganisation of the curriculum, improvement of the methods of you know what your college teaching, reforms in the system of the pigman themes essay examination, development of heart tale tell instructional materials and text books were undertaken during 5th plan period. Even then the achievement in this sector was not encouraging. So there were concerted efforts to achieve predetermined targets and objectives within the stipulated period. In the 6th plan, for the success of the new education policy of 10+2+3 necessary changes were made in the curriculum at the school stage in order to relieve the burden on the child and make it realistic.

It was expected that enrolment in secondary schools during the plan would be about 30 lakhs. It had been proposed to essay, achieve this objective by essays and effects of global, better and efficient utilisation of present secondary schools instead of opening new ones. However, the themes target would be fulfilled only through hard and how do you know to write your college essay sustained work, original and creative thinking, devotion and involvement of personnel associated with the planning and the pigman themes implementation of the new-pattern of education. The country had formally adopted a uniform pattern of education viz, the 10+2+3 pattern, consisting of 10 year school education followed by a two years higher-secondary or equivalent and !a three year degree course. Yet there was no uniformity in the number of essays act of years one spent in the three stages of school education; primary, upper-primary and secondary. However, classes VI to VIII were taken as components of the upper-primary stage. When the first and second All India Educational Surveys were conducted in the years 1957 and 1965, respectively, a distance of three miles or approximately 5 kilometers was considered to the pigman themes, be a convenient walking distance for children in classes VI to VIII.

Gradually, the distance limit was brought down to three kilometers. Besides, the pattern of upper primary schools prevailing in respective states and union territories varies. Therefore, the facilities for higher-primary education were available in different types of compare transition words schools. Some secondary and higher-secondary schools also had upper-primary classes attached to them. Unlike primary schools, the upper- primary schools were also managed by the government, local bodies, private bodies etc.

As the government had been giving a major thrust to themes essay, the expansion of education in rural areas, private managements had been playing a dominant role in compare essay transition urban areas. However, the overall annual increase in enrolment at the upper primary stage between the third and fourth survey was found to be 5.75 percent while that of between the fourth and fifth survey was 6.8 percent. An encouraging feature was that the rate of increase in the pigman essay enrolment had been more in how do your college essay on rural areas than in urban areas. The period between the first and the second survey witnessed a sharp increase in the percentage of the pigman themes essay habitations which had access to secondary stage education either within the habitation or up to a distance of eight kilometers (five miles). But it was reduced to five kilometers by the time of the heart statement tale tell third survey. Essay! The fourth survey (1978) revealed that 72.54% habitations were served by secondary education within eight kilometers, which was increased to 78.92% by the fifth survey. In fact, it revealed that the facilities of secondary education had been extended to a larger number of how do to write college habitations covering a higher proportion of rural population. As such, there were 52,560 secondary schools in India by 1986.

Of these, 38,862 were located in rural acres and the remaining 13,698 in urban areas. At the essay time of 1978 (fourth survey) the number of secondary schools was 36,675. It may be mentioned that the increase in the number of compare essay words secondary schools during the period between 1973 and themes 1978 was only 3.5%. The sixth five year plan envisaged for the extended educational facilities in rural and backward areas specially for weaker section of the community in the field of secondary and higher secondary education. During this plan period greater facilities for secondary education had to compare contrast transition words, provide due to the expansion of the base of education at the elementary stage. Since secondary education is considered as the means of social mobility and economic independence, particularly among the socially disadvantaged. Besides, the plan emphasized the importance of paying special attention to the quality of the pigman themes education at this stage and to improve the internal efficiency of the system and enhancing the thesis binding employability of its products. Heathen, there was great need for more sustained and planned effort for the qualitative improvement of education at this level. Gradually the demand for secondary education had been growing. The expansion of educational institution at the ground level provided a further impetus to this growth. For instance the number of upper-primary schools had increased from 1.35 lakhs to 1.46 laks from 1985-86 to 1990-91, respectively.

Therefore, during seventh plan provision was made for promoting distance learning techniques and open school systems. As a result, unplanned growth of high and the pigman higher secondary school was checked. Norms for the establishment of secondary school were evolved and strictly observed in you know what to write college essay order to avoid proliferation of economically nonviable and educationally inefficient institutions. In expanding the the pigman facilities, special attention was paid to the needs of backward areas of under privileged sections of the community. The teaching of science and mathematics at high and higher secondary stage was strengthened and made universal. Binding Holywell! Moreover, efforts were made to update and modernize science curricula, improvement of laboratories and libraries in schools and ensure the quality of science teachers through large-scale in service training programmes. In-fact, the progressive outlook of the authority is clearly evident from the introduction of environmental education in the courses of study which formed an important aspect of science education during this plan period. As such, the Socially Useful Productive Work (Work Experience) programme component constituted a link between work and themes education for the development of positive work ethics and work habits in learners. During sixth plan, a small beginning was made in providing computer literacy to students in selected secondary schools. Based on this experience, steps were taken to extend the essays on voting rights 1965 programme to cover different aspects of computer appreciation and application. The NPE, 1986 laid down that “access to the pigman essay, secondary education will be widened to cover areas unserved by it at present.”

As such, it recommended for the strengthening of the State Board of Secondary Education, reorganization of on causes and effects of global teacher education along with in service training, examination reform, improvement and modification of the content of secondary education curriculum, strengthening of the open school system, provision of extended educational facilities, special arrangement for talented children with pronounced competence etc. However, there had been a significance increase in the number of secondary schools. It increased from 54,845 in 1987-88 to 59,468 in 90-91 and the quality of themes essay education at this stage was enhanced. Essay Transition! Because the key issues in secondary education, apart from access, were quality, modernisation and diversification. Though a considerable degree of uniformity had been achieved in the pigman essay regard to common education structure of 10+2+3, there was a considerable diversity regarding the location of the +2 stage. In quite a few states it was not a part of the school system. The secondary stage was divided in to two very distinct sub-stages- Secondary (up to class X) which was the stage of general education and higher secondary (class XI and XIl) which was marked by differentiation and diversification. For the national system of education the NPE envisaged a national curriculum frame work. The work of curriculum revision for the secondary stage was undertaken in thesis biodiversity almost all the states and the UTs in the light of the guide-lines prepared by NCERT.

Further, necessary steps were taken by extending the access to themes, secondary education by opening new schools in the un-served areas and by extending and consolidating the existing facilities with particular emphasis on ensuring substantially increased enrolment of girls and the scheduled castes and essays on causes warming scheduled tribes. Besides, greater autonomy was given to the Board of Secondary Education of different states for strengthening their structure and composition. Quality improvement programmes were under taken relating to the pigman themes, teacher- education by according statutory and autonomous status to essays warming, NCTE, strengthening and upgrading the teacher-training colleges to Institute of Advanced studies (IASE) and College of Teacher Education. Moreover, pre-service and in-service teacher training programmes were designed and the pigman themes essay open school system at this level was extended. As time went on, the number of secondary schools increased enormously from 59,468 in heart tale 1990-91 to 90761 by 2002- 2003.

The number of teacher at teacher at the pigman themes this sage was 996054 and teacher pupil ratio was 1:30 by 2002-03. Before publishing your articles on thesis biodiversity, this site, please read the following pages: